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Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scoresJohnson, Lauri Macmillan; Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.