• Assessing Ecological Design Principles as They Relate to Sustainability in Neighborhoods of Tucson, Arizona.

      Bass, Beverly J.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Howard R.; Yoklic, Martin R. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Within urban areas, ecological design practices, as they relate to sustainability, are often employed to balance the needs of human and natural ecosystems. Older communities typically incorporated sustainable practices such as tightly clustered, multiuse development patterns, water harvesting and the use of vegetation to shade structures because technologies to overcome climate and travel limitations did not exist when they were built. During the twentieth century, technology advancements and changes in development patterns have contributed to a decreased emphasis on these practices. This study assessed neighborhoods of various ages in Tucson, AZ to determine what trends towards or away from ecological design practices exist in the area. Results of this study indicate that newer neighborhoods in Tucson exhibited fewer indicators of ecological design than did older neighborhoods, suggesting that ecological concerns may have played a diminishing role in the design of Tucson neighborhoods over time.
    • Botanical gardens : the influence of Islam, arid lands, and water in the Middle East

      Sellers, Catherine Clabby; Havens, W. H.; Deeter, M. T.; Jones, W. D. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The concept of the botanical garden can be traced to ancient times. The idea of the 'garden as paradise', the 'garden as orchard' and the 'chahar bagh' are part of the Persian culture, dating to 6000 B.C.. Mesopotamia is the supposed location of Eden, the oldest garden of the world. To determine the design criteria most suitable for a new botanical garden to be located in the Middle Fast, a study is required of: botanical garden history, the religious and cultural aspects of Islam which have formed design-rules for gardens , features common to arid lands, and water as a finite resource. The purpose of this study is to determine criteria for a botanical garden most suitable to the conditions of the Middle East in general, Kuwait in particular, and to identify those criteria in terms of the public benefits of recreation, education, conservation and enhancement of religious experience.
    • Evaluation of irrigation practices on the quality of turfgrass playfields in southwestern elementary schools

      Abel, Robert Harlan.; Havens, W. H.; Wilkin, D. C.; Mancino, C. F. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not sprinkler irrigation performance could be used as an indicator for turf quality and water conservation potential in southwestern elementary schools. Soil fertility, turfgrass visual quality and playing quality of seven elementary school playfields in Tucson, Arizona was assessed. Irrigation system performance was evaluated using the Water Resource Manager software. Maintenance regimes were evaluated for effectiveness in producing quality turf. Sprinkler distribution uniformity (D.U) was a function of effective turf management. Overuse put impossible demands on elementary school turf maintenance functions, the most critical of which was irrigation management. Good D.U. alone did not predict conservation potential nor did it indicate turf quality. While a qualified irrigation manager can use creative methods to conserve water even with a poorly designed system, conservation potential is lost when an unqualified manager is making irrigation decisions.
    • Guidelines for the Design and Development of Golf Courses Adjacent to Riparian Habitat in Semi-Arid Desert Landscapes

      Dietz, Robert Joseph.; Livingston, Margaret; Havens, William H.; Gimblett, H. Randal (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      With the growth of golf has come polarity. Environmentalists have targeted this growth as a misuse of precious land resources, fostering environmental fragmentation. The golf industry has countered by promoting the local implementation of strict environmental guidelines designed to minimize golf's impact on natural resources. Attempts to secure a compromise between developers and environmentalists in Pima County, Arizona have been moderately successful. There, existing environmental golf development guidelines are broad and insufficient to protect a declining riparian habitat. The purpose of this study is to offer improved guidelines for the future development of golf courses in the southwestern United States near sensitive riparian habitat. A comparative analysis of two local case studies provides the key to the development of new guidelines for golf courses near riparian areas in desert landscapes. Guidelines proposed within this study offer planning, design, construction, and maintenance direction related to the development of regional golf courses.
    • Potential Use of Water Harvesting in an Urban Development on State Urban Lands in the Tucson Area

      Gutierrez, Joni Marie.; Wilkin, Donovan C.; Hebel, Susan Jane; Cluff, Carwin Brent (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      Tucson, Arizona's population depends on its natural water supply as the largest community in the nation to rely entirely upon groundwater. With a population growth rate of 41/2 percent a year, Tucson's groundwater levels have been declining. State Urban Land, available for urban development in the Tucson area, is largely located where groundwater supplies are limited. If these lands are to be developed, insitu surface water supplies have to be utilized. This study examines an actual planned subdivision case study, Fairway Villas, along with existing water harvesting technologies. The case study and existing technologies are then incorporated into two additional schemes of design and compared. Comparisons of the potential runoff and economic feasibility were made. The two redesigned subdivision schemes indicated the runoff potential of the sites is enough to supply the subdivision with water for all landscape needs in both cases. Economically, the two additional schemes become feasible at a water rate increase of 7 and 10 percent, respectively. The State Land Department has the potential to fully develop their Urban Land near Tucson if alternative water supplies, such as water harvesting, are utilized.
    • Recreational Potential for Aridland Drainageways Tucson, Arizona A Design Model

      Blazquez Graf, Oscar A.; Rodiek, Jon E. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      The population shift to the arid and semiarid southwest of the United States of North America has increased the need for recreation open areas within the cities. This problem has been found in developing cities like Tucson, Arizona. This thesis deals with one component of the overall parkland problem, the use of washes and drainageways as open recreation areas. Using Tucson, Arizona as a study area, three linear parks along the washes within the urban area are used as case studies. Each park is analyzed in its location, access, facilities, and vegetation. This analysis gives a picture of each park and its advantages and disadvantages. From the case studies the analysis is compiled into planning/design concepts and recommendations. These products will be helpful to landscape architects and planners in the development of new linear parks along the washes and drainageways of the arid and semiarid cities.
    • Spatial Journeys: Eco-Tourism in the Lower Delta Region of the Colorado River & the Upper Gulf of California.

      Clement, Caryl; Frederickson, Mark; Glenn, Edward; Jones, Warren (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The northwestern region of the State of Sonora, Mexico is an area rich with cultural and bio-diversity. In recent years, over-fishing of this area coupled with the disappearance of the Colorado River Delta waters has caused a marked decline in the fishing industry. Local economies have suffered causing a trend of the young adults to move away from their homes in order to find viable occupations. Eco-tourism is a viable alternative, potentially improving the current economic decline of the local communities and maintaining the cultural family structures. Examination of the cultural, economic and environmental needs of the area and the preferences of eco-tourists, indicate the possibilities for a sustainable, low impact eco-tourism program. An integrated form of Eco-tourism is proposed for Cienega de Santa Clara, with other potential sites for Eco-tourism tourism activities identified within the region bounded by the Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve to the north, extending south through to the small fishing village of El Golfo de Santa Clara. The recommendations proposed are based on the integration of the following: the desires and needs of the locals, involvement of the locals at all levels, strategies that are sensitive to the environment, the desires and needs of Eco-tourists and the needs of outfitter guide services. A pro-active approach will be implemented in conjunction with a an American based company, Southwest Trekking, through the employment of pilot trips, surveys and structured interviews with locals residents and environmental scientists.
    • A Study of Impact of Urbanization on Ephemeral Streams in Headwater Watersheds in Eastern Pima County, AZ.

      Kumazawa, Naoto.; Kim, Mintai; Livingston, Margaret; Lopes, Vicente; Nichols, Mary H. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      In this study, the impact of urbanization on ephemeral streams in arid environments was assessed by comparing eight small headwater watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in Tucson, Arizona. Chronological change in urbanization, stream network, and downstream channel width were observed, employing GIS, orthophotos over thirty years, and field measurements. A decrease in drainage density caused by urbanization and a decrease in channel width were found in many study sites. The relationship between the chronological change in downstream channel width and the urbanization pattern in the watersheds was assessed using an index named Stream Based Urbanization Index that indicates spatial distribution of urbanization in watersheds in relation to streams. Based on the comparison of seven Index factors, a lower rate of decrease in channel width was observed in the watersheds with a higher urbanization, especially with a higher concentration of urbanization near streams among the general trend of channel narrowing.
    • Water in Tucson: Policy, Planning, and Public Involvement

      Hathaway, Pamela Lynne.; Ingram, Helen M.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Wilkin, Donovan C.; Gregg, R. Frank (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      This paper describes and assesses the policies, planning agencies, and citizen advisory committees which are involved in water resource decision making in the Tucson basin. Shifting priorities in basin water uses are traced by reviewing four events and trends. This review, together with a description of existing policies and planning agencies, provides the basis for assessing the status and potential for public involvement in water resource decision making. The influence of the citizens advisory committees on water resource decision making depends on the relationship among an agency, a committee, and the general public. If citizens advisory committees are to address controversial issues, such as those surrounding the priorities of water use in the basin, a link between community education and political participation is necessary.