• A confluence of thinking: The influence of 20th century art history on American landscape architecture

      Havens, William; White, Steven Robert (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Since beginning my graduate studies in landscape architecture, I have encountered many situations in class in which references to art were used. I discovered a connection in the usage of the jargon of art in landscape architecture study. People, for the most part, do not know what landscape architects do or who we are. In this thesis I will make the case for aligning the profession of landscape architecture with the fine arts and humanities. An art history component in the curriculum and education and training of landscape architects would augment their design and presentation skills in the workplace. I have included the results of a survey questionnaire that I sent to 65 landscape architecture teaching faculty representing 38 landscape architecture programs in the United States. These individuals held either a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, a Master of Fine Arts degree, or they had a scholarly research interest in art.
    • Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.
    • Design variables and the success of outdoor neighborhood recreational facilities

      Havens, William H.; Chapman, Gary Allen, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Today, park use is at an all-time high with the number of city parks increasing at a growing rate each year. Designing a successful outdoor neighborhood recreational facility insures that the surrounding population has an enjoyable, safe, and lasting space to recreate. This study properly illustrates the process in designing a successful neighborhood park. A demographic analysis, conducted in Southern California's Coachella Valley, identified three neighborhood parks as ideal study sites. Likewise, the review of existing literature, site observations, and the analysis of a carefully designed survey developed the appropriate methodology in meeting the intent of this study. As author, I wish to stress the importance of process. If the designer of a neighborhood facility is to meet the recreational goals of any community, he or she must first take action in understanding the appropriate process. Once this understanding is achieved, effective design guidelines may then be developed.
    • Factors associated with the development and implementation of master plans for botanical gardens

      Livingston, Margaret; Mielcarek, Laura Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The role of master plans at botanical gardens was studied for the purpose of identifying particular characteristics in successful master plan implementation. Twenty existing master plans were analyzed to provide background information about typical content, format, and professionals involved with development of master plans. In addition, fifty surveys were conducted with Directors of botanical gardens and arboreta. Twenty questions were posed to the Directors to define the extent of master plan implementation (i.e. use) at the garden and to identify the factors that affect implementation. Log-likelihood ratio tests (G tests) were performed to evaluate the data. Eighty-eight percent of the institutions surveyed reported that they implement a master plan at the garden. Significant relationships were observed between use of the master plan and the following factors: hiring a landscape architecture firm; involvement of staff, Boards of Directors, and the community; and inclusion of key sections, graphics, and the institution's mission statement. Based on these results, guidelines for master plan development and implementation are presented.
    • The importance of xeroriparian habitat to single family residents in unincorporated Pima County

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Novak, Karen Marie, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Riparian habitat, the narrow strip of vegetation associated with natural drainageways, is considered important because it provides many benefits. Benefits include wildlife habitat, flood control, recreational opportunities, ground water protection, and visual aesthetics. A survey of forty-five selected single family residents in unincorporated Pima County was conducted to explore the importance a general population places on riparian habitats, specifically xeroriparian habitats. Xeroriparian habitat is the vegetation that is associated with smaller ephemeral streams in the arid southwest. The results of the survey indicate that xeroriparian habitat is important to the general population. The survey questions included information on the respondents' use of riparian areas near their home, knowledge of riparian habitat benefits, concerns regarding riparian habitats near the respondent's house, impacts of the removal of xeroriparian habitat near the respondent's home on their attitude toward their home, and influence of xeroriparian habitat on a future selection of a home.
    • Perceptions of quality of life held by Tubac residents: A further exploration of qualitative approach to quality of life research

      Wilkin, Donovan C.; Mann, Hili Sonia, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study explores: (1) Attitudes and perceptions of Tubac residents that may have an impact on their QOL--both personally and at the community level; and (2) QOL measurement techniques that may contribute to the utilization of QOL indicators as a tool for studying and monitoring human communities toward a sustainable future. Informal interviews were conducted with seventeen Tubac residents followed by the distribution of a questionnaire in a "snowball" sampling method (Bernard, 1994). Fifty-two responses were compiled and compared for similarities and differences. Results demonstrate the majority of Tubac residents are extremely satisfied with the QOL and feel fortunate to live in a community they believe is unique--mostly for its surrounding natural scenery. Results also support the idea that qualitative approaches to QOL measurement techniques are necessary for further comprehension of the complexities of human communities.
    • Planning and design of the urban park: A study of use patterns at Fort Lowell Park and the creation of new design guidelines for park development in Tucson, Arizona

      Gimblett, Randy; Longaker, Robert George (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This thesis will study Fort Lowell Park, a typical district park in Tucson, Arizona. Through a survey of park users, the park itself will be assessed according to its positive and negative aspects. The survey itself will seek to capture the thoughts, beliefs, and recreational needs of the typical park user in Tucson. Through the compilation and interpretation of survey results, and with the assistance of case studies involving cities investing in parks and open spaces, the author of this thesis expects to produce new guidelines not only for the improvement of Fort Lowell Park, but also for the planning and design of new urban parks in the Tucson metropolitan area. These new guidelines will not only improve the quality of recreational experiences in the City of Tucson, but will also contribute to the economic, social, and quality of life variables which make a city an attractive place in which to live.
    • Relationship between remnant size and plant species richness in the Tucson urban matrix

      Livingston, Margaret; Duncan, Allison B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      The Sonoran Desert surrounding Tucson, Arizona is the dominant matrix in a region undergoing a transition from desert matrix to urban matrix with little emphasis placed on preserving this native ecosystem intact. Instead, patches of desert, remnants, are cut off the desert matrix and surrounded by a variety of land uses including residential, transit, and commercial. 31 sites within the City of Tucson were surveyed and the site's plant species richness, woody cover, herbaceous cover, and disturbance percentage measured. The plants found on-site were classified into native or exotic, annual or perennial, and woody or herbaceous, and further broken down into growth form. Results indicated a significant correlation between a site's area and its percent disturbance, as well as correlations between its native vegetation and area.
    • Site planning in Guadalajara architecture education: An exploratory study

      Gimblett, Howard R.; Vergara, Santiago (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      In recent years, the use of site planning in architecture has significantly increased. However, a large number of architecture schools in Mexico have not included this subject in their educational profile. This may strongly impact regions where there is an absence of city planning-related disciplines to cover this demand. This study explores how professionals, professors and students of architecture schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, perceive the importance of site planning in their profession and examines the potential of expanding these concepts in their curricula. This study found that site planning concepts and applications are considered essential knowledge for Guadalajara architects' education. Aso, a high potential for expanding site development issues, the use of systematic approaches, and the incorporation of tools was found.
    • Techniques for improving established golf courses: Restoration, renovation, and redesign. An improvement plan for the Meadow Club (Fairfax, California)

      Livingston, Margaret; Thawley, Mark Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This study clearly defines and identifies the difference between the terms, restoration, renovation and redesign. In order to understand characteristics found on golf courses built in different eras, the history of golf course architecture has also been summarized. Research was gathered from eight courses that have recently completed some type of improvement project or that are currently undergoing improvements. The results show that the process of improving golf courses built before World War II differs considerably from improving those built after the War. Through neglect the former have lost many unique design characteristics and are therefore worthy of restoration. Based on the results of this study, key factors for successful restoration have been identified and applied to the Meadow Club, a course that is currently planning improvements. Built in 1927 the Meadow Club was originally designed by legendary golf architect, Alister Mackenzie.
    • The therapeutic values of gardens and landscapes

      Zube, Ervin H.; Batelli, Penny Lynn, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Research has shown that plants, gardens, and nature can promote and enhance human health and well-being. A review of the relevant literature examined human-environment relationships and the possible therapeutic benefits derived from these relationships. In addition to the research literature, therapeutic gardens designed by landscape architects were examined. A comparative analysis between various theories within the research literature, and between the research literature and executed designs was performed. This analysis resulted in design suggestions and guidelines from the point of view of fostering human health and well-being.
    • Visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing: An evaluation of six exhibits in the western United States

      Livingston, Margaret; Ridgway, Stephanie Clark (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The design of zoo and aquarium exhibits has a strong influence on visitor behavior in exhibit enclosures. Furthermore, zoo exhibits with underwater viewing draw large crowds. The intent of this study was to formulate significant design criteria, through post-occupancy evaluation, to be used for the design of successful underwater exhibits in zoos. This study was conducted to reveal factors significantly influencing viewing time and visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing. At four zoo facilities, 331 visitor groups were observed and asked to participate in a short survey at six zoo exhibits. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate observation and survey results. The size of the underwater viewing window, animal size, animal aquatic activity, presence of infant animals, visitor group type and crowding levels had a significant impact on visitor behavior. Recommendations for the future design of underwater zoo exhibits are discussed.