• ABSOLUTE STREET, a new type of streetscape for future high-density urbanism

      Livingston, Margaret; An, Tai (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      During the past decades, conflicts between the natural ecosystems and the need for urban development has led to a loss of connection to green spaces in urban cores. The Park Avenue in New York represents a highly-developed central business district with limited connections to green space. Currently the pedestrian space in Park Avenue exists as only a 16-foot-wide sidewalk. With limited areas for green space, people generally move from one destination to another with a highly-straightforward purpose. The median in this area could represent a space associated with activities that would capture interest for those moving through the space. Urbanism often drives the downtown area into an antipedestrian place where structures and automobiles occupy 90% of the surface. People are active “in the cracks” of those components, where population and parking problems are often not addressed. This project focused on a modular design on Park Avenue to study different possibilities that attempt to highlight how green space and inhabitants coexist with the development of the city. Additionally, it presents a solution to replace a simple function area with one that is more multi-functional.
    • Accessibility for persons with mobility impairments in Sabino Canyon Recreation Area's Upper Canyon

      Steward, Shirley Kathleen, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      This thesis discusses accessibility issues for persons with mobility restrictions visiting Sabino Canyon Recreation Area's Upper Canyon near Tucson, Arizona. A shuttle bus from the Visitor Center area provides the only motorized access into the Canyon interior. Designated shuttle stop areas are inaccessible, preventing some individuals with mobility problems from extending their time in the natural setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physical inaccessibility at the shuttle stops and provide design recommendations to improve access appropriate to the natural setting, using proposed guidelines which are being considered by the USDA Forest Service, Sabino's managing agency, for its outdoor recreation areas. The methods used were an evaluation of each shuttle stop area and application of the proposed guidelines to assign accessibility accommodation levels to each shuttle stop. Recommended modifications within each level are given. Conceptual plans for two shuttle stop areas and detailed drawings for facility accessibility are provided. A review of literature on human preferences and psychological benefits associated with natural environments, the impacts of physical disabilities, and accessibility legislation and standards is included.
    • ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF FORT BOWIE NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE

      PINTO, ROBIN LOTHROP (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    • Applications of environment-behavior-design research to planned communities

      McCormick, Bailie Grant, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      This study addresses and evaluates the use of Environment-Behavior-Design (E-B-D) research in planned community practice in greater Pima County, using the specific plan approach. The research uses two methods; (1) a review of planning documents; and (2) interviews with planners. The results suggest that very little E-B-D research use has occurred in specific plans, although respondents were supportive of E-B-D research. Recommendations are made for improving research applications and for appropriate subjects for E-B-D research on planned communities.
    • Arroyo Chico Riparian Design: Integrating stormwater management with greenway enhancement

      Wang, Xi (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The focus of this research is on re-design of degraded riparian systems in a desert climate and urban context. Specifically, it explores a landscape approach for rehabilitating the Tucson’s Arroyo Chico Wash. Analyses were performed to assess the site condition within its context to determine an appropriate treatment that addresses social and ecological functions. In particular, a greenway plan that implements water management infrastructure was designed on the site, creating social and ecological benefits for surrounding communities. Ultimately, it is the author’s intent to establish a framework and principles for similar riparian projects in urban environments.
    • Art for Plants’ Sake: Encouraging Arid Plant Palettes Through Installation Art

      Livingston, Margaret; Lutheran, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of Tucson is currently experiencing growing pains as urban revitalization converts empty lots throughout Downtown Tucson into housing and retail. The increase in density results in a city with more pedestrian amenities, however it also reduces the amount of available urban green space. As the space for green amenities contract, the remaining landscape is converted into a commercially available plant palette, however this development provides no reference to Tucson’s environmental context. Tucson is located within the Sonoran Desert, a semi-arid region that receives 12” of annual rainfall. Limited water availability combined with extreme heat has created a unique ecosystem of diverse plant and animal life adapted to difficult conditions. The urban environment creates additional environmental constraints such as degraded soils, increased disturbance, and reduced light, which lead many urban projects to select plant material solely based on urban constraints. As urban development brings more residents into the urban core, the demand for urban parks will continue to increase. Small urban parks are a valuable refuge for residents and wildlife alike, providing relief from the urban environment. Urban parks provide important social spaces allowing the community to gather and landscape elements that reflect the community to strengthen its identity. Public art enhances the urban environment by illustrating the genus loci that bonds residents to the site and their community while engaging new users. To reflect the unique context of the Sonoran Desert, Tucson’s urban parks must educate the public about the benefits of working in concert with Tucson’s natural environment. A series of art installations will highlight the unique methods plants of the Sonoran Desert use to survive harsh desert conditions. Installation art will promote understanding of arid-adapted plants while accompanying planting displays will acclimatize the public to the aesthetics of desert landscapes. As the public becomes aware of the benefits of climate-appropriate plants they will demand that these communities are integrated into the urban landscape matrix to benefit the city and environment alike. Desert-adapted plants provide native habitat, and give residents greater connection to their city and highlighting the unique context of Tucson’s surroundings.
    • Assessing Ecological Design Principles as They Relate to Sustainability in Neighborhoods of Tucson, Arizona.

      Bass, Beverly J. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Within urban areas, ecological design practices, as they relate to sustainability, are often employed to balance the needs of human and natural ecosystems. Older communities typically incorporated sustainable practices such as tightly clustered, multiuse development patterns, water harvesting and the use of vegetation to shade structures because technologies to overcome climate and travel limitations did not exist when they were built. During the twentieth century, technology advancements and changes in development patterns have contributed to a decreased emphasis on these practices. This study assessed neighborhoods of various ages in Tucson, AZ to determine what trends towards or away from ecological design practices exist in the area. Results of this study indicate that newer neighborhoods in Tucson exhibited fewer indicators of ecological design than did older neighborhoods, suggesting that ecological concerns may have played a diminishing role in the design of Tucson neighborhoods over time.
    • ASTORIA URBAN WATERFRONT PARK: RE-IMAGINING EXISTING ABANDONED PLAYGROUNDS IN QUEENS, NEW YORK CITY

      Livingston, Margaret; Nguyen, Truc (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of New York is the most populated city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With the population increasing every day, lands become very precious. Buildings keep growing upward to create more living and working spaces for New Yorker. With the gift of nature, water, and land, a waterfront park has become one of the attractions for New Yorkers and tourists during the daytime. However, the city has been facing an issue of sea level rise over many years. Many studies show that sea level is rising at an accelerated rate, especially along the U.S. east coast. Because of this reason, New York City officials have required designers to consider this issue in their future designs. This study documented the design process of a Master Plan for the Astoria Urban Waterfront Park in Astoria neighborhood, Queens, New York City. The project outcomes minimized the effectiveness of sea level rise while providing an inhabitable space for the residents. Astoria Urban Waterfront Park is an opportunity to restore biodiversity, create habitat for wildlife, grant access to the water, and house outdoor activities. A review of relevant literature was conducted to develop a framework for the design approach. Case reviews of other urban and waterfront parks were conducted for project outcomes and programs. In-depth site analysis and inventory were captured the site conditions and contextual surrounding. Outcomes focus on two public open spaces connected by a waterfront corridor.
    • Botanical gardens : the influence of Islam, arid lands, and water in the Middle East

      Sellers, Catherine Clabby (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The concept of the botanical garden can be traced to ancient times. The idea of the 'garden as paradise', the 'garden as orchard' and the 'chahar bagh' are part of the Persian culture, dating to 6000 B.C.. Mesopotamia is the supposed location of Eden, the oldest garden of the world. To determine the design criteria most suitable for a new botanical garden to be located in the Middle Fast, a study is required of: botanical garden history, the religious and cultural aspects of Islam which have formed design-rules for gardens , features common to arid lands, and water as a finite resource. The purpose of this study is to determine criteria for a botanical garden most suitable to the conditions of the Middle East in general, Kuwait in particular, and to identify those criteria in terms of the public benefits of recreation, education, conservation and enhancement of religious experience.
    • BUTTE CREEK TRAILS PROJECT: A MASTER PLAN

      CLIFFORD, SARS (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Categories of elderly experience in the landscape

      Doxtater, Rebecca Jo, 1944- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Aspects of landscape experience by the elderly are explored. An understanding of this user group is sought through investigation of stereotypes, personality traits, psyco-social, and physical aspects of aging. A construct of use categories provides a system for understanding the environment in terms of what it is perceived to provide its users. Use categories include wayfinding, human territoriality, cultural expression, visual and non-visual aesthetics, and task performance. Drawing from literature and research in many areas, each of these categories is first defined in general terms. Each is then surveyed relative to its more specific application to the elderly which is followed by an examination of each category as it relates to the elderly and landscape. Application of categories to site analysis, programming, design, post-occupancy evaluations, and research is proposed. Some landscape design implications for the elderly are noted along with areas for further research.
    • Changes in riparian vegetation following release of reclaimed effluent water into the Santa Cruz River: As a corollary, the effects of channelization on vegetation in the Santa Cruz River

      Gormally, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Recharge has been conducted very efficiently for twenty-five years near Roger and Ina roads along the Santa Cruz River using reclaimed water. This project seeks to determine the composition of river vegetation due to the release of the reclaimed water, and as a corollary, to examine the effects of channelization on the vegetation of the Santa Cruz River. Using belt and line transects the vegetation along the Santa Cruz River was surveyed. Treatment with effluent was found to increase plant density, diversity, richness, cover, and incidence of exotic plants. Channelization was found to increase only plant richness and incidence of exotic plants. Furthermore, effluent encouraged the growth of tree plant types while channelization discouraged such growth. Recommendations were made regarding future release of effluent into the Santa Cruz River and future attempts to restore the once prolific, willow-cottonwood forests and mesquite forests.
    • CIUDAD DEL SABER / CITY OF KNOWLEDGE / MASTER PLAN

      SU, HYEWON (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • A confluence of thinking: The influence of 20th century art history on American landscape architecture

      White, Steven Robert (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Since beginning my graduate studies in landscape architecture, I have encountered many situations in class in which references to art were used. I discovered a connection in the usage of the jargon of art in landscape architecture study. People, for the most part, do not know what landscape architects do or who we are. In this thesis I will make the case for aligning the profession of landscape architecture with the fine arts and humanities. An art history component in the curriculum and education and training of landscape architects would augment their design and presentation skills in the workplace. I have included the results of a survey questionnaire that I sent to 65 landscape architecture teaching faculty representing 38 landscape architecture programs in the United States. These individuals held either a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, a Master of Fine Arts degree, or they had a scholarly research interest in art.
    • CREATING EXPERIENCES: THE CITY OF KNOWLEDGE INTERPRETIVE NETWORK

      SUSSMAN, RACHEL M. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • A critical analysis of the plans for the preservation of four Templer colonies in Israel

      Golan, Ya'acov, 1948- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      In view of the pressures accompanying modern life and population growth, there is great need and importance in the preservation of historic sites, which can create balance between the past and future and strengthen the sense of stability and cultural continuity. This study critically analyzes plans for preservation and development of four of the seven colonies which were founded in Palestine in the 19th century by the German Templers who immigrated because of religious convictions. The history of the group and their contribution to the development of Palestine are described, as are the present condition of the colonies. Criteria for critical analysis of preservation plans which drawn from existing laws in the modern state of Israel, international charters, and interviews with people connected to the colonies in one way or another. The conclusions from this analysis show that only one plan fits the criteria.
    • Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores

      Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.
    • Design variables and the success of outdoor neighborhood recreational facilities

      Chapman, Gary Allen (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Today, park use is at an all-time high with the number of city parks increasing at a growing rate each year. Designing a successful outdoor neighborhood recreational facility insures that the surrounding population has an enjoyable, safe, and lasting space to recreate. This study properly illustrates the process in designing a successful neighborhood park. A demographic analysis, conducted in Southern California's Coachella Valley, identified three neighborhood parks as ideal study sites. Likewise, the review of existing literature, site observations, and the analysis of a carefully designed survey developed the appropriate methodology in meeting the intent of this study. As author, I wish to stress the importance of process. If the designer of a neighborhood facility is to meet the recreational goals of any community, he or she must first take action in understanding the appropriate process. Once this understanding is achieved, effective design guidelines may then be developed.