• THE TACOMA FLATS A study of post-industrial urban waterfront rejuvenation

      Herman, Brandon (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Named after nearby Mount Rainier, Tacoma has been on a slow but steady rebound from the economic decline of a postindustrial nation. Founded at the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1873, Tacoma’s economy was historically based largely on the exportation of natural resources, such as timber and coal. Although still trying to find its stride, this Pacific Northwest city has retained, for the most part, the blue collar industrial grit that the city was originally founded on. Like most industrial cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century. An effect of suburbanization and disinvestment, the city still finds many of its historic structures and vacant parcels largely underutilized. However, since the 1990’s, the city has felt some effects of reinvestment. The University of Washington integrated a Tacoma campus into the Downtown core, Tacoma Link, the state’s first light rail line, and the Thea Foss Waterway urban waterfront redevelopment all helped to provide the local economy with a much needed boost. Additional investments in the downtown include the restoration of Union Station and the creation of the Museum District, which includes The Museum of Glass, Bridge of Glass, Tacoma Art Museum, Washington State History Museum, Lemay-America’s Car Museum, Children’s Museum of Tacoma, and Foss Waterway Seaport - a centuryold shipping warehouse and maritime heritage educational center. Tacoma also posses a thriving theatre district. Perhaps we have disinvestment to thank for the lack of redevelopment that has ultimately lead to the preservation of vast blocks of historic Tacoma. This fact, along with a more affordable housing market, and greater investment interest help lay the foundation for a future as a complete and healthy metropolitan center. This city inherently holds many of the desirable amenities, spatial arrangements, and historical vernacular that other cities around the country are trying to recreate post urban renewal era. The Tacoma Flats programming and design makes many assumptions regarding the future of this city - a fully realized economy, a large regional population expansion, and increased efficiencies in port functions. This 2050 vision is just that, a glimpse of how underutilized former industrial areas adjacent to the downtown core could be used to accommodate the growth, health, and ecological function of this historically rich region of the Puget Sound. The Tacoma Flats 2050 vision is simply the realization of possibilities.
    • Techniques for improving established golf courses: Restoration, renovation, and redesign. An improvement plan for the Meadow Club (Fairfax, California)

      Livingston, Margaret; Thawley, Mark Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This study clearly defines and identifies the difference between the terms, restoration, renovation and redesign. In order to understand characteristics found on golf courses built in different eras, the history of golf course architecture has also been summarized. Research was gathered from eight courses that have recently completed some type of improvement project or that are currently undergoing improvements. The results show that the process of improving golf courses built before World War II differs considerably from improving those built after the War. Through neglect the former have lost many unique design characteristics and are therefore worthy of restoration. Based on the results of this study, key factors for successful restoration have been identified and applied to the Meadow Club, a course that is currently planning improvements. Built in 1927 the Meadow Club was originally designed by legendary golf architect, Alister Mackenzie.
    • Theory and Design Considerations of a Saline Ecological Landscape: A constructive method to reduce brine waste volume

      Bresdin, Cylphine; Glenn, Ed; Scott, Beth; Blazquez, Oscar (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Pertinent abiotic and biotic factors and their interdependencies necessary to comprehend the ecology of saline systems are investigated and evaluated. A designed saline ecosystem is proposed as a constructive method to reduce waste volume. Landscape pattern is investigated as the vehicle for an evapotranspiration induced directional saline gradient. A demonstration site is used to explore conceptual design application of the idea of ecosystem pattern consisting of a linear sequence of ecotopes, each displaying its own ecological community in relation to salinity range and site context. Biota is relinquished to self-organization. Potential for research use of the ecosystem is illustrated.
    • The therapeutic values of gardens and landscapes

      Zube, Ervin H.; Batelli, Penny Lynn, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Research has shown that plants, gardens, and nature can promote and enhance human health and well-being. A review of the relevant literature examined human-environment relationships and the possible therapeutic benefits derived from these relationships. In addition to the research literature, therapeutic gardens designed by landscape architects were examined. A comparative analysis between various theories within the research literature, and between the research literature and executed designs was performed. This analysis resulted in design suggestions and guidelines from the point of view of fostering human health and well-being.
    • Tomorrow's Garden: Uniting Tradition Technology Community

      Kindler, Brad (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Today challenges of climate change, population growth, biodiversity loss, and water scarcity, lead farmers to ask new questions about how to grow food in a changing environment. Additionally, innovative technology and public food preferences present challenges and opportunities for farmers to consider before planting. Honoring Tucson’s diverse community and unique history, this study proposes the design of Tomorrow’s Garden. This garden seeks to punctuate Mission Garden’s historic timeline with a demonstration of sustainable and innovative agricultural practices. Outcomes of this proposal include the design of a garden that has the capacity to adapt to changing climate, as well as build community through design process and project implementation.
    • Transect the Loop

      Livingston, Margaret; Anthony, Paige (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      What interventions can improve connectivity within established residential neighborhoods and to the nearby regional recreational assets? This project looks at the challenge of connectivity within Tucson, specifically the residential core of the city. That is not to say that the goals of this effort could not be applied to other urban environments. The framework presented here could be used to develop site specific outcomes in any city. Focus of the literature and case reviews may shift, as might the inventory. Nevertheless, the need to address the safety and infrastructure to support alternative transportation and improve our urban ecology is everywhere.
    • Tucson al Fresco: A Toolkit for Decentralized Streetscape and Streatery Design

      Livingston, Margaret; Bejjani, Ramzy (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The Covid-19 Pandemic forced a dramatic reimagination of public space. To reconcile the seemingly dueling requirements of public health and quotidian activities, people developed a diverse quiver of strategies to reconfigure the public realm, be it open air markets, pedestrianized neighborhood streets, a shift towards outdoor dining, etc. This report explores how one of these responses – streateries, an expansion of dining and drinking space into the public realm -- could be formally integrated into our post-pandemic urban fabric. Working with local municipalities, small businesses deployed streateries to great effect during the pandemic, building them quickly with only informal, on-hand materials. This ad hoc, often grassroots response was a global experiment in design deregulation. This report formalizes a process for decentralized and democratized streetscape design in order to institutionalize lighter, quicker, cheaper strategies and tools so that their practice and benefits can be more easily understood, more quickly deployed, and more equitably shared. The result is a toolkit for those wanting to start their own streatery or streatery program.
    • TUCSON: MONITORING THE PUBLIC'S PERCEPTION OF SCENIC BEAUTY AND REAL ESTATE VALUE

      Pardee, Robert McKnight, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • Turn of the century metropolitan park systems

      Zube, Ervin H.; Lyon, Roberta Lee, 1944- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      More than twenty metropolitan park systems in the United States were designed and constructed during a period of intense urbanization in the late nineteenth century. Similar conditions of rapid growth in "Sunbelt" cities today, and continued recognition of the need for urban parks, makes understanding of factors significant to the longevity of the historic systems useful. Park systems of Washington, DC, Cleveland, Ohio, Kansas City, Missouri and Minneapolis, Minnesota are compared in the literature and by direct observation. Settings, goals, forms, siting, and activities of these systems are examined. Impacts of suburbanization, changes in transportation, increased leisure, and development of planning bureaucracies are discussed and compared. Findings suggest: graphic plans exhibiting bold images were most likely to be implemented; intent of the design is preserved by careful definition of goals and objectives; and systems organized on the basis of natural topography and drainageways have better maintained their usefulness and identity.
    • The University Village: Planning Framework and Open Space Development

      Copp, Bryan David; Havens, William H.; Johnson, Lauri M.; Medlin, R. Larry (The University of Arizona., 1993)
    • URBAN LAND USES IN NOGALES, SONORA, MEXICO

      LOPEZ QUINTERO, LUIS JAIME (The University of Arizona., 1998)
    • Urban Voids: A Potential in Tucson's Wasted Spaces

      Palomo, Isaac (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      In the last decade, urban voids have emerged as a challenge for rapidly urbanizing cities. Especially in the city center where the early city settlement was situated, many urban and industrial functions have moved out leaving behind abandoned and under-utilized spaces. Underutilized and abandoned land in urban areas are often overlooked and neglected, ultimately rendering them as unattractive, dead spaces. Urbanization has led urban life to become dull due to the degrading of the environment and the devoid of space for sociocultural activities. As city populations continue growing, there is an increased pressure to provide open outdoor spaces for inhabitants. Urban Voids are a vital component in the context of social interaction and act as a meeting point to enable people to have direct contact with the society around them. The aim of this study is to understand the urban character of dead spaces within Tucson’s downtown district and identify a wasted space that has the potential to be leveraged into an active space to further enhance and strengthen the public realm.
    • Visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing: An evaluation of six exhibits in the western United States

      Livingston, Margaret; Ridgway, Stephanie Clark (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The design of zoo and aquarium exhibits has a strong influence on visitor behavior in exhibit enclosures. Furthermore, zoo exhibits with underwater viewing draw large crowds. The intent of this study was to formulate significant design criteria, through post-occupancy evaluation, to be used for the design of successful underwater exhibits in zoos. This study was conducted to reveal factors significantly influencing viewing time and visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing. At four zoo facilities, 331 visitor groups were observed and asked to participate in a short survey at six zoo exhibits. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate observation and survey results. The size of the underwater viewing window, animal size, animal aquatic activity, presence of infant animals, visitor group type and crowding levels had a significant impact on visitor behavior. Recommendations for the future design of underwater zoo exhibits are discussed.
    • A Walk on the Wild Side: Incorporating Ecological Design and Ethnobotany Interpretation in Morris K. Udall Park

      Hatch, Dionna (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Parks have the potential to be educational, athletic, aesthetic, and artistic places. This work focuses on the linking of art, ecology, ethnobotany and socialization within a portion of a recreational park. The project utilizes the framework of Sonoran ecology and ethnobotany, while integrating the elements of Citizen Science programs and social environments within a new trail. The framework will be applied to a public recreational park, Morris K. Udall Regional Park, to develop a unique socially dynamic, educational and artistic space that inspires users about the natural environment. Methods include: literature review, site analysis, and design guidelines. Final outcomes will include an on-line resource for Citizen Science programs, master plan design for Udall Park, revegetation techniques, and a social ethnobotanical center for the east side of Tucson. Recommendations for the integration of Citizen Science programs and educational art installations are included throughout the design.
    • Water in Tucson: Policy, Planning, and Public Involvement

      Hathaway, Pamela Lynne.; Ingram, Helen M.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Wilkin, Donovan C.; Gregg, R. Frank (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      This paper describes and assesses the policies, planning agencies, and citizen advisory committees which are involved in water resource decision making in the Tucson basin. Shifting priorities in basin water uses are traced by reviewing four events and trends. This review, together with a description of existing policies and planning agencies, provides the basis for assessing the status and potential for public involvement in water resource decision making. The influence of the citizens advisory committees on water resource decision making depends on the relationship among an agency, a committee, and the general public. If citizens advisory committees are to address controversial issues, such as those surrounding the priorities of water use in the basin, a link between community education and political participation is necessary.
    • Wetlands and Bouncy Castles: A Juarez Nature Park Along the Us-Mexico Border

      Nuno-Whelan, Mario (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      What the heck do wetlands and bouncy castles have to do with each other? Usually, absolutely nothing. This project proposes that maybe they could. The focus here is the design of a constructed wetland park in the city of Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that uses treated effluent to create wildlife habitat that once existed in the floodplain of a meandering Rio Bravo/Rio Grande prior to channelization. However, there are two broader design challenges that make it unique: 1) the site is adjacent the Juarez-El Paso border and directly across the river from an existing 372-acre Rio Bosque Wetlands Park in El Paso, constructed in the 90s and irrigated by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant; and 2) the site is an undeveloped patch of agricultural land nearly surrounded by compact, single-family housing in an overlooked community. And this is where bouncy castles fit in. The goal is to integrate undeveloped wetland habitat with much-needed recreation space for a dense, urban neighborhood in a growing Mexican city. If you’ve ever been to a big public park in a Southwest city around graduation season or summer birthdays, you’ll know that shade ramadas and bbq grills get a lot of love. Families - and I mean families: grandmas, grandkids, aunts, neighbors, friends, every age group - go all out with food and lawn games...and sometimes, for big occasions...bouncy castles. Public parks are used similarly in Juárez. Families often visit parks in big groups. In order for this park to work, that kind of visitation needs to be designed for. The bouncy castle is a symbol. No, the park doesn’t come with bouncy castles and they will probably seldom be there. But they could be. And the design allows for it. It even welcomes it. It allows for people to use the park the way a lot of people actually use parks: in big groups, with food and family and games, with coolers and tables and camping chairs. The bouncy castle is a poofy pink stand-in for future graduation parties, family reunions, and Sunday family picnics in a park that also has wetlands and trails and unprogrammed nature.