• Southside Revival: A Research-based Design Approach to Revitalizing the 6th Avenue Corridor in South Tucson

      Livingston, Margaret; Kohen, Sol (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      South Tucson, Arizona faces a slew of challenges, poor public perception, and logistical issues having to do with poor funding of redevelopment. A need exists for small town revitalization plans, rooted in main street redesign along South Tucson’s 6th Avenue corridor. Investigation into community, business, and environmental make-up was conducted, along with analysis into how policy strategies, and design solutions can be implemented. Ultimately, city-wide master planning, with a main focus on streetscape improvement through high-profile public amenities, could foster a framework for private investment, and improved public image.
    • Spatial Journeys: Eco-Tourism in the Lower Delta Region of the Colorado River & the Upper Gulf of California.

      Clement, Caryl; Frederickson, Mark; Glenn, Edward; Jones, Warren (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The northwestern region of the State of Sonora, Mexico is an area rich with cultural and bio-diversity. In recent years, over-fishing of this area coupled with the disappearance of the Colorado River Delta waters has caused a marked decline in the fishing industry. Local economies have suffered causing a trend of the young adults to move away from their homes in order to find viable occupations. Eco-tourism is a viable alternative, potentially improving the current economic decline of the local communities and maintaining the cultural family structures. Examination of the cultural, economic and environmental needs of the area and the preferences of eco-tourists, indicate the possibilities for a sustainable, low impact eco-tourism program. An integrated form of Eco-tourism is proposed for Cienega de Santa Clara, with other potential sites for Eco-tourism tourism activities identified within the region bounded by the Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve to the north, extending south through to the small fishing village of El Golfo de Santa Clara. The recommendations proposed are based on the integration of the following: the desires and needs of the locals, involvement of the locals at all levels, strategies that are sensitive to the environment, the desires and needs of Eco-tourists and the needs of outfitter guide services. A pro-active approach will be implemented in conjunction with a an American based company, Southwest Trekking, through the employment of pilot trips, surveys and structured interviews with locals residents and environmental scientists.
    • A Study of Impact of Urbanization on Ephemeral Streams in Headwater Watersheds in Eastern Pima County, AZ.

      Kumazawa, Naoto.; Kim, Mintai; Livingston, Margaret; Lopes, Vicente; Nichols, Mary H. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      In this study, the impact of urbanization on ephemeral streams in arid environments was assessed by comparing eight small headwater watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in Tucson, Arizona. Chronological change in urbanization, stream network, and downstream channel width were observed, employing GIS, orthophotos over thirty years, and field measurements. A decrease in drainage density caused by urbanization and a decrease in channel width were found in many study sites. The relationship between the chronological change in downstream channel width and the urbanization pattern in the watersheds was assessed using an index named Stream Based Urbanization Index that indicates spatial distribution of urbanization in watersheds in relation to streams. Based on the comparison of seven Index factors, a lower rate of decrease in channel width was observed in the watersheds with a higher urbanization, especially with a higher concentration of urbanization near streams among the general trend of channel narrowing.

      Pena-Mayoral, Luis Gerardo (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Subsurface irrigation of turf: An examination of current methods

      Deeter, Michael T.; Schmoll, Timothy Jon, 1942- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This study examines literature on subsurface irrigation of turf using published and unpublished sources to determine its relevance for the designer of irrigation systems. It looks at two installed sites to determine current industry practices and then develops a model to assist the designer of these systems. Finally areas in need of further research and technical development are suggested. Literature is not readily available to the designer and it is sometimes contradictory. Case studies show that subsurface irrigation is an effective method of irrigating turf, especially in arid parts of the world. A model to select tubing and emitter spacing is developed by summarizing existing literature and case studies. Virtually all areas of design, installation and management need further research. Two primary areas that need further investigation are specific design issues and benefits to the end user such as cost, water savings and maintenance procedures.
    • Sustainable Landscape Development of Urban Waterfront: A waterfront park design along Sanjiao Lake, Xinmin River and Taizi Lake in Wuhan Economic Development Zone in China

      Lu, Li; Frederickson, Mark; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As an important natural resource, urban watercourses have a close relationship with urban development, such as significant connectivity, ecological values and recreational opportunities. Unfortunately, conservation and development of urban waterfronts have not received sufficient attention in many cities in China. Rapid urban development in China has led to decrease in urban watercourses, degradation of urban riparian areas and water pollution. This work focuses on strategies for developing waterfront areas along Sanjiao Lake, Xinmin River and Taizi Lake which is located in Wuhan Economic Development Zone, China.
    • Sustainable Urban Waterfront: Re-imagining Waterfronts as Inclusive Public Spaces

      Quinn, Kelly, James (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Concerns for sustainability and the environmental management processes that contribute to it, is of critical importance to the future growth of cities throughout the world. Cities located along river corridors, lakes and coastal waterways have a greater concern as human migration to these areas has increased over the last several decades. Bordered by water, these communities must make use of limited land while protecting critical natural resources from damage due to their continued growth. From ancient times, such urban settlements and their ports were intimately related in both functional and spatial terms (Hoyle and Pinder) owing their prosperity to waters usefulness and ease in transportation and trade. In port cities today, the symbiosis between water and human based functions has changed dramatically, challenging cities at times to reclaim industrial and derelict properties and transform them into spaces that expand economic growth, protect public health, the environment, and create a sense of place for local residents. The goal of this project is to identify design guidelines that fall within the parameters of sustainable and smart growth planning and develop a model for a sustainable waterfront redevelopment project. The challenge in this project is to develop a model that meets 3 distinct design criteria: 1. Restore the biological and physical structure of the water and shoreline where possible. 2. Enhance the existing waterfront facade and landscape. 3. Allocate space for the areas cultural, social and public programs throughout the entire project. Coastal and waterfront communities around the world have a distinct sense of place created by their history and geographic location. Some of these once thriving maritime communities, over time have deteriorated into underutilized, obsolete and often contaminated properties. Bordered by water, coastal communities are challenged to make use of limited land, while protecting the natural resources from the effects of urban growth. Taking advantage of and reinvesting in these pre-disturbed coastal areas, communities can once again thrive, bringing value back to both the economy and the community. Living near or on the water historically has been and is expected to remain very desirable. Take for example the United States. In the U.S., coastal cities cover less than 17% of the land area yet 52% of the U.S. population lives within that area, and that number is expected to grow (Smart Growth manual 3). In third world countries that number is even higher due in part to the number of jobs available and the overall quality of life in these areas is better. Panama City is no different. The city is in the midst of its own population explosion. At the beginning of European settlement (1501), historians estimate that the entire population (some 60 tribes) of what is now the Republic of Panama was between 500,000 and 750.000. (U.S. Library of Congress) Today, the city hosts a population of just over 1.2 million people, roughly 52% of the countries entire population. (U.S. Library of Congress). According to the world bank, Panama is an uppermiddle income developing country that suffers from extreme income inequality affecting 40% of its population. (World Bank.org)
    • THE TACOMA FLATS A study of post-industrial urban waterfront rejuvenation

      Herman, Brandon (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Named after nearby Mount Rainier, Tacoma has been on a slow but steady rebound from the economic decline of a postindustrial nation. Founded at the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1873, Tacoma’s economy was historically based largely on the exportation of natural resources, such as timber and coal. Although still trying to find its stride, this Pacific Northwest city has retained, for the most part, the blue collar industrial grit that the city was originally founded on. Like most industrial cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century. An effect of suburbanization and disinvestment, the city still finds many of its historic structures and vacant parcels largely underutilized. However, since the 1990’s, the city has felt some effects of reinvestment. The University of Washington integrated a Tacoma campus into the Downtown core, Tacoma Link, the state’s first light rail line, and the Thea Foss Waterway urban waterfront redevelopment all helped to provide the local economy with a much needed boost. Additional investments in the downtown include the restoration of Union Station and the creation of the Museum District, which includes The Museum of Glass, Bridge of Glass, Tacoma Art Museum, Washington State History Museum, Lemay-America’s Car Museum, Children’s Museum of Tacoma, and Foss Waterway Seaport - a centuryold shipping warehouse and maritime heritage educational center. Tacoma also posses a thriving theatre district. Perhaps we have disinvestment to thank for the lack of redevelopment that has ultimately lead to the preservation of vast blocks of historic Tacoma. This fact, along with a more affordable housing market, and greater investment interest help lay the foundation for a future as a complete and healthy metropolitan center. This city inherently holds many of the desirable amenities, spatial arrangements, and historical vernacular that other cities around the country are trying to recreate post urban renewal era. The Tacoma Flats programming and design makes many assumptions regarding the future of this city - a fully realized economy, a large regional population expansion, and increased efficiencies in port functions. This 2050 vision is just that, a glimpse of how underutilized former industrial areas adjacent to the downtown core could be used to accommodate the growth, health, and ecological function of this historically rich region of the Puget Sound. The Tacoma Flats 2050 vision is simply the realization of possibilities.
    • Techniques for improving established golf courses: Restoration, renovation, and redesign. An improvement plan for the Meadow Club (Fairfax, California)

      Livingston, Margaret; Thawley, Mark Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This study clearly defines and identifies the difference between the terms, restoration, renovation and redesign. In order to understand characteristics found on golf courses built in different eras, the history of golf course architecture has also been summarized. Research was gathered from eight courses that have recently completed some type of improvement project or that are currently undergoing improvements. The results show that the process of improving golf courses built before World War II differs considerably from improving those built after the War. Through neglect the former have lost many unique design characteristics and are therefore worthy of restoration. Based on the results of this study, key factors for successful restoration have been identified and applied to the Meadow Club, a course that is currently planning improvements. Built in 1927 the Meadow Club was originally designed by legendary golf architect, Alister Mackenzie.
    • Theory and Design Considerations of a Saline Ecological Landscape: A constructive method to reduce brine waste volume

      Bresdin, Cylphine; Glenn, Ed; Scott, Beth; Blazquez, Oscar (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Pertinent abiotic and biotic factors and their interdependencies necessary to comprehend the ecology of saline systems are investigated and evaluated. A designed saline ecosystem is proposed as a constructive method to reduce waste volume. Landscape pattern is investigated as the vehicle for an evapotranspiration induced directional saline gradient. A demonstration site is used to explore conceptual design application of the idea of ecosystem pattern consisting of a linear sequence of ecotopes, each displaying its own ecological community in relation to salinity range and site context. Biota is relinquished to self-organization. Potential for research use of the ecosystem is illustrated.
    • The therapeutic values of gardens and landscapes

      Zube, Ervin H.; Batelli, Penny Lynn, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Research has shown that plants, gardens, and nature can promote and enhance human health and well-being. A review of the relevant literature examined human-environment relationships and the possible therapeutic benefits derived from these relationships. In addition to the research literature, therapeutic gardens designed by landscape architects were examined. A comparative analysis between various theories within the research literature, and between the research literature and executed designs was performed. This analysis resulted in design suggestions and guidelines from the point of view of fostering human health and well-being.
    • Tomorrow's Garden: Uniting Tradition Technology Community

      Kindler, Brad (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Today challenges of climate change, population growth, biodiversity loss, and water scarcity, lead farmers to ask new questions about how to grow food in a changing environment. Additionally, innovative technology and public food preferences present challenges and opportunities for farmers to consider before planting. Honoring Tucson’s diverse community and unique history, this study proposes the design of Tomorrow’s Garden. This garden seeks to punctuate Mission Garden’s historic timeline with a demonstration of sustainable and innovative agricultural practices. Outcomes of this proposal include the design of a garden that has the capacity to adapt to changing climate, as well as build community through design process and project implementation.
    • Transect the Loop

      Livingston, Margaret; Anthony, Paige (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      What interventions can improve connectivity within established residential neighborhoods and to the nearby regional recreational assets? This project looks at the challenge of connectivity within Tucson, specifically the residential core of the city. That is not to say that the goals of this effort could not be applied to other urban environments. The framework presented here could be used to develop site specific outcomes in any city. Focus of the literature and case reviews may shift, as might the inventory. Nevertheless, the need to address the safety and infrastructure to support alternative transportation and improve our urban ecology is everywhere.
    • Tucson al Fresco: A Toolkit for Decentralized Streetscape and Streatery Design

      Livingston, Margaret; Bejjani, Ramzy (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The Covid-19 Pandemic forced a dramatic reimagination of public space. To reconcile the seemingly dueling requirements of public health and quotidian activities, people developed a diverse quiver of strategies to reconfigure the public realm, be it open air markets, pedestrianized neighborhood streets, a shift towards outdoor dining, etc. This report explores how one of these responses – streateries, an expansion of dining and drinking space into the public realm -- could be formally integrated into our post-pandemic urban fabric. Working with local municipalities, small businesses deployed streateries to great effect during the pandemic, building them quickly with only informal, on-hand materials. This ad hoc, often grassroots response was a global experiment in design deregulation. This report formalizes a process for decentralized and democratized streetscape design in order to institutionalize lighter, quicker, cheaper strategies and tools so that their practice and benefits can be more easily understood, more quickly deployed, and more equitably shared. The result is a toolkit for those wanting to start their own streatery or streatery program.

      Pardee, Robert McKnight, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • Turn of the century metropolitan park systems

      Zube, Ervin H.; Lyon, Roberta Lee, 1944- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      More than twenty metropolitan park systems in the United States were designed and constructed during a period of intense urbanization in the late nineteenth century. Similar conditions of rapid growth in "Sunbelt" cities today, and continued recognition of the need for urban parks, makes understanding of factors significant to the longevity of the historic systems useful. Park systems of Washington, DC, Cleveland, Ohio, Kansas City, Missouri and Minneapolis, Minnesota are compared in the literature and by direct observation. Settings, goals, forms, siting, and activities of these systems are examined. Impacts of suburbanization, changes in transportation, increased leisure, and development of planning bureaucracies are discussed and compared. Findings suggest: graphic plans exhibiting bold images were most likely to be implemented; intent of the design is preserved by careful definition of goals and objectives; and systems organized on the basis of natural topography and drainageways have better maintained their usefulness and identity.
    • The University Village: Planning Framework and Open Space Development

      Copp, Bryan David; Havens, William H.; Johnson, Lauri M.; Medlin, R. Larry (The University of Arizona., 1993)

      LOPEZ QUINTERO, LUIS JAIME (The University of Arizona., 1998)
    • Urban Voids: A Potential in Tucson's Wasted Spaces

      Palomo, Isaac (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      In the last decade, urban voids have emerged as a challenge for rapidly urbanizing cities. Especially in the city center where the early city settlement was situated, many urban and industrial functions have moved out leaving behind abandoned and under-utilized spaces. Underutilized and abandoned land in urban areas are often overlooked and neglected, ultimately rendering them as unattractive, dead spaces. Urbanization has led urban life to become dull due to the degrading of the environment and the devoid of space for sociocultural activities. As city populations continue growing, there is an increased pressure to provide open outdoor spaces for inhabitants. Urban Voids are a vital component in the context of social interaction and act as a meeting point to enable people to have direct contact with the society around them. The aim of this study is to understand the urban character of dead spaces within Tucson’s downtown district and identify a wasted space that has the potential to be leveraged into an active space to further enhance and strengthen the public realm.
    • Visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing: An evaluation of six exhibits in the western United States

      Livingston, Margaret; Ridgway, Stephanie Clark (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The design of zoo and aquarium exhibits has a strong influence on visitor behavior in exhibit enclosures. Furthermore, zoo exhibits with underwater viewing draw large crowds. The intent of this study was to formulate significant design criteria, through post-occupancy evaluation, to be used for the design of successful underwater exhibits in zoos. This study was conducted to reveal factors significantly influencing viewing time and visitor behavior in zoo exhibits with underwater viewing. At four zoo facilities, 331 visitor groups were observed and asked to participate in a short survey at six zoo exhibits. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate observation and survey results. The size of the underwater viewing window, animal size, animal aquatic activity, presence of infant animals, visitor group type and crowding levels had a significant impact on visitor behavior. Recommendations for the future design of underwater zoo exhibits are discussed.