• Lighting Retrofit of the Robert L. Nugent Building

      Evans, Sasha; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Hoffman, Michael; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-11)
      The goal of this project is to reduce energy consumption at the University of Arizona by retrofitting the existing light bulbs in the Robert L. Nugent Building. Through Students for Sustainability, this project aimed to apply for grant money from the Green Fund to make sustainable retrofits to buildings on campus. This capstone project serves as a guide for lighting retrofits and explains how to work with organizations on campus to reduce energy consumption.
    • Ocean Pollution Knowledge & Actions

      Smith, Delaney; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Mullen, Kelly; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-10)
      With global plastic production on the rise and the continuous amount of mismanaged waste, marine fauna's future is at stake. Plastic pollution is a major environmental concern and efforts are needed globally in order to protect our environment. This report focuses on whether ocean pollution and single-use plastic education and outreach can be a part of a community's solution. This study is a quasi-experimental design based on a survey, intervention, and post-survey format. It was found that ocean pollution education and reducing personal waste guidance can help raise awareness because it can positively impact individuals' environmental attitudes and actions.

      Iuliano, Joey; Valenzuela, Carlos Francisco; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Adkins, Arlie; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-08)
      In the United States, from 2015 to 2016, a nine percent increase was recorded in pedestrian-related fatalities from motor vehicle crashes (NHTSA 2017). To reduce the number of pedestrian-related accidents, and to reduce the dependence of the motor vehicle for primary transportation, the roadway infrastructure needs to be centered around pedestrian usage, multiple modes of transportation need to be offered, and the environment needs to be made exciting and comfortable for all users. This study provides an overview of factors that contribute to pedestrian-related accidents and reduce walkability in South Tucson. This study also provides an overview and a step-by-step process of solutions and recommendations for future development in troubled areas. This work will be accomplished through a) US census data analysis, b) crash data analysis, and c) an assessment of roadway/pedestrian infrastructure design. It found that there were some trends between the two zip codes 85713 and 85704 which are; the zip code 85713 had higher poverty status rates, the household income was significantly lower than in zip code 85704, the average population age was younger than in zipcode 85704, and that more people were cycling to work than in zip code 85704. The mapping of the crash data showed there were more pedestrian-related accidents within a South Tucson location than in a location in North Tucson. It also found that the roadway design and pedestrian infrastructure in South Tucson offered significantly fewer safety elements to pedestrians than in North Tucson. To make South Tucson more walkability and pedestrian-friendly, the roadway, which includes; the intersection, streets, crosswalks, and bikeways, needs to be redesigned.
    • Complete Streets Critique

      Wardell, Tyler; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-08)
      People have been traveling for thousands of years in an attempt to improve their lives by some means. “For many centuries individual movement and trade relied on walking, packhorses, and horse-drawn carts and wagons” (Black, 2003). The facilities for these modes were placed along the natural pathways people used to get around. Black (2003) explains, “The first major roads to be built in Europe are attributable to the Roman Empire...among their many and varied skills was a talent for road building... Their roads were built in response to a potential need to move armies quickly from one place to another, and they were built to last forever.” Roads have changed over the centuries since the time of the Romans. Modern materials have replaced cobblestones, and new transportation options have complicated roads. However, the underlying goal is still the same: to move people, goods, and services from A to B. More often then not, we see roads built for moving cars while other transportation options such as walking, cycling, or using transit are often an afterthought. While Tucson roads provide options, they are not necessarily safe or comfortable ones. Sidewalks in Tucson are infrequent outside of the urban core and often without shade. Bike lanes tend to be narrow and unprotected. Transit stops are unshaded and service has a long headway, leaving people to wait in the hot sun. All of which leads to uncomfortable walking conditions, the potential for automotive bike accidents, and heat stroke from sun exposure. It does not have to be this way; roads can be friendly to all modes of transportation with better design and planning. Adding trees along the street can provide shade over sidewalks. Buffers and barriers on bicycle lanes help keep drivers and cyclists separate. Shaded transit stops, and more frequent service creates a more pleasant experience for users. There are so many options that it can be difficult to pick the right ones for any given situation. Wardell 3 Up until recently, policies in place that dictated how to design roads for all users were limited to The American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design standards and the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). The design standards have favored drivers over alternative transportation. However, more cities have started to adopt complete streets policies. These policies often follow designs from NACTO- National Association of City Transportation Officials- which favor a blend of options for all users. In Spring 2019, Tucson passed its Complete Streets Initiative, which put into place new guidelines for building and designing our roads. At the same time, the passing of Prop 407- Parks and Connectivity Bond- provided funding to implement complete street designs. While many roads will not see an upgrade until they are repaved, the city now has a policy in place to elevate non-personal vehicle modes. However, is this a policy that works- will it improve our transportation options and create a more vibrant built environment- or is it one that will gather dust on a shelf? This study sets out to critique and compare Tucson’s Complete Streets Initiative to other examples, one in the Southwest and one in the Northwest to compare a similar climate and a differing one. Our plan will be compared against Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Hailey, Idaho in categories such as enforceability, design standards, and transportation options. The strengths of those plans will be identified and then used to propose ways to improve Tucson’s policy.
    • The Connection between People and Place: A Case Study on Social Interactions in UA Outdoor Public Spaces

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Morrissey, Lauran; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-08)
      This study aims to investigate how the design of three outdoor public spaces on the University of Arizona campus effects the level of social interaction at each site. Social interaction is defined by interchangeable sequences of exchanges where individuals can attach meaning, interpret, and respond; which includes looking, listening, and talking (Salih & Ismail 2017). With similar sizes and locations, The Women’s plaza of Honor, The Highland Bowl, and The University Services Building Courtyard were chosen to compare their ability to promote social interaction through five different criteria: placement, usage, image/design, elements, and access (Salih & Ismail 2017). This study found that the highest count of social interactions directly relate to the diversity of areas and seating for people to interact in. Addtionally, the quality, interest, and comfort of the seating and elements (like grass, art, etc.) had an effect on the success of people using these spaces.
    • Using Desalination in a Sustainable Fashion

      Kilman, Sterling; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-07)
      As the world’s population grows and climate change continues to affect the planet regional water supply has become an important issue for many places. The state of California has its own unique issues with water supply given its drought history and massive population. This case study aims to look at the feasibility of widescale implementation of desalination to supplement and replace California’s supply of Colorado River Water. Using desalination to purify ocean saltwater into potable water is a unique form of water production that has its own advantages and disadvantages.
    • Feng Shui and Sustainability

      Guo, Longhao; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bean, Jonathan; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Feng Shui, as ancient environmental art and science, provides a significant reference for many East Asians to choose the living environment and building environment. Nowadays, the concept of Feng Shui has gradually been introduced to some western countries. And some experts have found that the traditional Chinese Feng Shui theory is similar to the western concept of sustainable development in many ways (Mak and Ge, 2013). It can be seen from the analysis results of the building cases; the western sustainable design perspective focuses more on the physical characteristics of the building. However, the focus of Chinese Feng Shui is on the exterior and interior of the building space, and the connection between people and the surrounding living environment (Mak and Ge, 2010). Today’s interpretation of Feng Shui principles has incorporated Western concepts of sustainability, but some of these effects are difficult to measure (Mak and Ge, 2010). This situation also shows that if architects can consider the concept of Feng Shui when designing buildings, and combine it with Western sustainable design concepts, it will be conducive to enhancing the development and application of sustainability. Therefore, scientific research on Feng Shui and how to integrate it with the western concept of sustainable development requires more studies.
    • Hispanic Heritage Park: An Urban Park Proposal for Tucson's Mercado District

      Kramer, Sean; Schmidt, Erika; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Stoker, Philip; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-24)
      Located in the heart of Tucson’s most historic region, the Mercado District offers locals a unique, downtown-like atmosphere through its modern, yet Spanish colonial inspired, shopping plazas and residential complexes. Small businesses, boutiques, and eateries reside within the two popular marketplaces, which increase the tourism draw to this newly developed area. In addition, the Mercado District hosts the All Souls Procession, an annual event celebrating Día de los Muertos, which has made its mark on the community as a symbolic tradition for Tucson residents. Though the Mercado District has become a staple of Tucson and seen successful rates of attendance, it has yet to incorporate green space or a park for its guests to enjoy while visiting. Considering the cultural presence evident throughout the Mercado District, as well as the Hispanic influence present in Tucson’s history and local traditions, a cultural park within the district would not only encourage recreation within the Mercado District but also exemplify a sustainable, desert landscape. For my senior thesis, I am designing a Sonoran-inspired greenspace between W Cushing Street and W Congress Street, along the Santa Cruz River. Though the park will be represented digitally, the Hispanic Heritage Park will be a theoretical urban space that embodies the union of community and heritage, while also promoting natural resources, rainwater harvesting, and landscape design. Themes of sustainability, landscape architecture, and symbolism will be the basis of park design decisions, while specific infrastructure will be determined through research, observations, interviews, and a site analysis. Concept art will be created through hand-drawn sketches and using SketchUp. Ultimately, the Hispanic Heritage Park will allow guests to immerse themselves in a natural, aesthetic environment to commemorate and appreciate Tucson’s unique culture.
    • Adaptive Reuse of Shopping Malls - Case Study of the Foothills Mall in Tucson, AZ

      Brown, Ian; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-23)
      Dead and dying shopping malls are pervasive in the United States and abroad. What were once proxy town centers, created with the best of intentions during the expansion of cities into suburbs after World War II, are now often a blight on the communities they once served. Although malls remained vibrant hubs of activity for decades, drawing in ever more development around them, the model became diluted, focusing far too much on retail and profit. Ultimately, consumers tired of the mall and directed much of their spending to big box stores, the “category killers,” and their free time to a new “third place,” outdoor lifestyle centers. Shopping malls had weathered downturns in the past, but the advent of internet retailing dealt malls a final blow, one that would be unrecoverable while in their current form. How to deal with these properties is a question for landlords and communities in nearly every municipality in the nation. Adaptive reuse has emerged as a promising solution that utilizes the existing infrastructure, limits the demolition of the site, and renews the vibrant activity that once took place in these “town centers.” The Foothills Mall in Tucson, Arizona (currently referred to as “Uptown” on the Bourne Companies website) is a compelling case study for adaptive reuse. It is a prime example of a shopping mall that once flourished during the growth of a city and then went through two downturns into vacancy. A Specific Plan for mixed-use has already been approved by Pima County for its redevelopment, keeping portions of the existing property in-tact. The literature on shopping malls, their history, golden years, decline, and renewal is reviewed along with industry publications and the Specific Plan. Interviews with industry leaders add insights. Best practices are discussed to support, challenge, and guide future decisions.
    • Ideal Elephant Enclosure Design

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Hughes, Katie; Eppard, Jessica; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Dimond, Kirk; Koprowski, John; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-23)
      This paper attempts to evaluate factors that would lead to an ideal elephant enclosure, providing the best experience for the guests, the keepers, and, most importantly, the elephants themselves. A literature review concerning the history of zoos, current enclosures, and elephant needs was conducted as well as observations at a local zoo and interviews with multiple keepers. Standards used by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), which certifies zoos around the country to ensure the highest levels of welfare and being upheld, were used as a baseline for these ideals along with findings from these other sources. Keeper involvement was determined to be imperative to good enclosure design, as well as providing dynamic viewing for guests. Signage that was at a 45° angle rather than straight up and down, preferably that triggers an emotional response was most effective. Guests, on average, spent about 13.55 minutes moving through the exhibit. Observations for this study were only made at one zoo, limiting the broader implications.
    • The Fast Fashion Epidemic

      Iuliano, Joey; Wiebke, Adele; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga, Adriana; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-22)
      The clothing industry is sneaky, polluting our world as we know it without batting an eye. When we think about pollution, our first thoughts go to burning coal and fossil fuels, not to what we put on our bodies every day. Therefore, environmental movements have not targeted the fashion industry directly. The Fast Fashion Epidemic is a global issue—not only does it affect our planet’s environment, through means of being the second-biggest consumer of water, responsible for the production of 20% of global wastewater and 10% of global carbon emissions while also filling our landfills with disregarded textiles and clothes that aren’t accepted at donation sites, but also the lives of everyday people. These fast fashion companies are producing clothing at an alarming rate, faster than the general fashion industry had ever seen before. To be able to make and sell clothes at such low prices can only mean the labor they are using to make said garments are getting unpaid, and are usually in unhealthy conditions. The purpose of this project is to explore why, currently, young adults who can (more specifically, high school/college students) consume fast fashion are consuming it at such an alarming rate, and what solutions can be made to solve this world crisis.
    • Sustainable Event Transportation

      Kramer, Sean; Shorey, Owen; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Stoker, Philip; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-04)
      Each year, cities around the world host thousands of different events and sports, stirring passion and providing entertainment for individuals from all around. These events attract millions of people each year to specific areas in a city to partake in or watch an attraction. These types of occurrences are significant to many individuals as it provides them with an escape from their everyday lives. Sporting events and other events like festivals, fairs, and trade shows are crucial to many cities' economies. They attract outsiders from different parts of the world, and this creates a massive uptick in economic activity during those times due to the high volume of people. Unfortunately, while these lustrous events do wonders for the cities or areas they are held, they are not sustainable and can be harmful to the environment, the surrounding neighborhoods, and the air quality. Event locations, such as stadiums, are a pivotal part of the entertainment world that allows fans to connect with celebrities and professionals face to face. Drawing thousands of individuals to a specific location has a direct tie to the increase in the amount of traffic that takes place in that area (Pyun & Humphreys, 2017). Given that cars are emitters of carbon emissions (Environmental Protection Agency, 2018), the more traffic congestion that occurs in a compact area, the more carbon emissions that will be released. Among these emissions, carbon dioxide is known to be one of the driving factors in anthropogenic climate change (NASA, 2019). Currently, impacts from climate change such as the melting of polar ice caps, rising sea levels, and more extreme patterns of weather are occurring at higher rates (NASA, 2019). When an event takes place at an isolated location, traffic jams cause cars to idle while waiting to park or exit the stadium lot. When a vehicle is idling, it uses more fuel and will produce more emissions than when the car is moving. (U.S. Department of Energy, 2015). The emissions from idling cars directly tie into the reduced air quality of the surrounding area that can have harmful effects on human health and contribute to climate change. (Zeisel, 2017) This research project sets out to determine how the University of Arizona can improve on traffic revolving around games and events to reduce the impacts on the surrounding neighborhoods, air quality, and climate change. This is an important aspect of the sports and entertainment world that can go overlooked. These events offer an enormous opportunity to promote the idea of a healthier world to the attendees as the events play a key connecting role between the people and the things they love. To achieve this, it will be necessary first to understand how the fans currently get to the campus. Then by looking at how the University plans for the traffic and discussing with professionals, it will be possible to determine alternative strategies that could assist in bettering the traffic issues. If the University of Arizona can deter enough traffic during games successfully, then this will not only help the local environment but the citizens of Tucson as well.
    • Photocatalysis for Cleaner Cities

      Kramer, Sean; Houk, Ivory; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04)
      This study has been done to show how the cleanliness of an environment has an effect on its use. This is being studied with relation to photocatalytic technologies that can be applied in vertical and horizontal structures, with the primary focus being on concrete. This studies the use of two different environments and how waste collection affects the way that it is used, with attention paid to how the use of this technology could alter this. The findings showed that areas that are heavily trafficked are often more cared for by users with respect shown through waste disposal. This study determined what questions still remain about this technology and what research is ongoing with regard to this.
    • Sourcing Sustainable Energy at Music Festivals

      Esparza, Jordan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-06)
      Concern for carbon emissions is growing and every day that the world uses fossil fuels pushes us closer to irreparable damage. This paper focuses on the impact of outdoor music festivals, their carbon footprints, where they source energy from, and how to make it more environmentally friendly. Thousands of large music events take places around the globe each year, and with a growing population, this issue will only get worse. Working with Relentless Beats of Arizona, this paper uses Decadence Arizona as a case study. Decadence Arizona is an annual 2-day music festivals taking place on New Year’s Eve and New Years Day, in Chandler, Arizona. This paper will determine how, and what resources are needed to power Decadence through solar panels alone. All costs calculated are based on averages of the Phoenix metropolitan area at the time of review.
    • A Call for Remediation: Food Deserts

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Callahan, Lindsay; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga, Adriana; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-05)
      The total area covered by cities is projected to triple worldwide in the next forty years (Swilling, 2016). Not only will this urban sprawl continue to consume America’s farmland, but sustainability efforts are largely being hampered, as resources will continue to be depleted, biodiversity will continue to shrink, and ecosystems will be degraded more so than they already are. In recent decades, there has been a flip in where people prefer to reside. Post World War II, America’s upper class preferred living in large mansions in the suburbs, while poorer people lived in or on the edge of central business districts. Nowadays, due to changing demographics and high fuel prices, affluent people prefer to reside in or near cities, and the suburbs have seen an increase in crime and poverty rates (Gallagher, 2014). In layman’s terms, the rich want to be near their jobs, recreation, and amenities, while the poor population has been pushed to less well-rounded/safe areas for residency. The United States’ national population is comprised of almost 326 million people, 23.5 million of whom currently live in a food desert (USDA, 2009). A whopping 2.2% of all American households are located more than ten miles away from a grocery store- this statistic is under-reported, as small corner stores are counted in the same category as big supermarkets in our Industry Classification System (North American Industrial Classification Systems, 2007 ) (Appendix A). Urban growth patterns show that expansion of the suburbs post World War II did not cause increased food access. Expansion radiated outwards, and food access largely remained centralized. Thus, those living on the outskirts where once the rich with means of transportation that would allow them to access food sources easily. However, since the switch in residents, the poor have much more difficulty accessing these supermarkets due to a variety of limitations. These low-income people who find it hard to get and access fresh produce and meat, live in what are called “food deserts.” A food desert does not say residents have no access to food at all, but the options available include numerous quick marts and/or fast food chains that provide a “wealth of processed, sugar, and fat-laden foods” (American Nutrition Association, 2010). Due to transportation barriers, research has demonstrated that people residing in food deserts tend to indulge in unhealthy options more than those living in supermarket accessible areas, and thus residents near or in food deserts tend to have health and weight issues. There is a positive correlation between food deserts increasing in quantity across America and America’s increasing obesity epidemic, where these health concerns end up having a snowball effect for the poor. This capstone is a policy review and lays out ideas to begin to alleviate the food desert crisis in America. The current and historical status of the situation will be thoroughly reviewed, and remediation suggestions will be flushed out throughout the paper.
    • Tucson regional strategies toward a more sustainable home

      Smith, Ben; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Ward, John; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-04)
      Individuals approach the implementation of sustainable strategies at home depend on many factors, which include personal values and economic status. Questions concerning the viability of sustainable home building persist, even within the industry. Utilizing current research, observations, and personal interviews with industry experts, this study attempted to define a prescriptive list of sustainability strategies to the average resident of the Tucson region interested in becoming more energy-efficient. A hierarchy of strategies emerged, ranging from low to no cost implementation strategies to high cost remodels. A consensus was reached concerning the importance of thermal envelope integrity as well as the often- overlooked benefit of shading strategies on the east and west side of a home. Limitations of this study include the scope of energy savings in the residential sector versus societal consumption as a whole, notably within the transportation or industrial sectors.
    • Growing Up: Greenhouse Designs for Urban Spaces

      Adams, James; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      With the world heading towards a potential food crisis by the year 2050 we need to start looking at current solutions to future problems. One idea is to create more efficient greenhouses where more food can be grown in a smaller space and closer to population centers. By first understanding a brief history of the origins of greenhouses and their historic uses we can further our understanding of how to push these designs into a better future. By utilizing new construction materials, buildings designs, and growing methods, greenhouses may be able to help stem the need for additional agricultural land and food transport. Many companies are already creating urban farms but there is still room for improvement. This study takes a look at some basic ideas towards furthering this goal.
    • Rebound Renewables

      Moore, Alyssa; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Orkney, Justin; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-11-16)
      In an attempt to better understand the effects of renewable energy as it continues to grow in preference, this capstone will focus on Southern Arizona - primarily the Tucson area. Arizona has an arid environment, with an abundance of sunshine making it the ideal location to utilize solar power. As more people realize the potential of renewable energy, a new problem begins to emerge. This capstone explored how the effectivity and efficiency of renewable energy can create a rebound effect. Through the use of qualitative and quantitative data, a strong positive correlation was found that shows that consumers use more energy after switching to renewable energy than before. The study also found that there is a contradiction between how people perceive themselves in terms of environmental consciousness versus how environmentally conscious they behave.
    • Cost Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Buying Solar

      Doser, Seth; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bean, Jonathan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-11)
      I conducted a cost-benefit analysis of buying solar panels versus leasing them. This study was performed on three residential locations and three commercial locations, which all had different square footage and usage. I found that with smaller system sizes for residential locations, leasing is not the best option. Otherwise, buying and leasing for larger system sizes is based on personal preference. This study demonstrated what the total cost to buy specific system sizes would be and what a customer would save based upon the cost of a leasing program month to month and annual savings based on a Power Purchase Agreement. This study showed the benefits of going solar and what program, lease or buy, could fit you as an individual.
    • Food Insecurity in Tucson, Arizona: An Analysis of the Potential Impact of Food Distribution Resources to Combat Food Deserts

      Pennington, Georgia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Drew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05-03)
      This research paper aims to examine the food insecurity in Tucson, Arizona and how the use of surplus food distribution markets could be a factor in relieving some of that insecurity. The resources that will be included in this study will be community gardens, farmers markets, and Market on the Move (MOM)/Produce on Wheels Without Waste (POWWOW) projects. After surveying 140 users of MOM/POWWOW, there was no clear demographic of the users. Additionally, less than 10% of the markets were located in food deserts, which emphasizes that there is room to expand markets to these areas to serve vulnerable populations.