• Analysis of The Effect of Building Energy Conservation on Reducing Carbon Emissions

      West, Cortney; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Dr. Nader; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-05-09)
      Climate change is gaining speed and affecting the life on earth in increasingly drastic ways. Humans are the main cause for climate change with the primary driver being amplified greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are the largest contributors of greenhouse gases, and both are done for human needs and comfort. A major source of greenhouse gases is the energy used to run buildings. Specifically, heating, cooling, and lighting are the largest users of electric; therefore, the largest contributors to climate change. This report takes an in depth look at building energy uses, how the energy used for these systems can be reduced, and how much carbon emissions can be cut by implementing appropriate design strategies and using proper materials for the climate. Computer programs COMcheck and eQUEST were used to analyze building energy performance and analyze the effect of alternate energy strategies. The results show that minimal modifications at the design stage of planning a building can decrease energy needs by up to 45% by passively using the environment as a power source. The results also display that using sensible materials can have a big impact on the long-term carbon emissions of a building. The analysis for this report was designed specifically for commercial buildings; therefore, future research would include the carbon emission analysis for residential buildings.
    • Campus Sustainability Case Study: Analyzing the energy use, cost efficiency, materials, and construction methods of two campus dormitories, and investigating what causes these differences.

      Keith, Ladd; Clements, Scott; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Lynn, Charlie; Keith, Ladd, Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2015-05-14)
      The subject matter of this report regards the overall efficiency of two University of Arizona Dormitories from a cost, energy, materials, and construction techniques point of view. Essential to this study was also the social habits of residents within the dormitories, and how they effected the energy use. The two dormitories are considered “pre – LEED” as they were built prior to the recent certification system. Both Manzanita – Mohave, and Coronado Residence Halls were examined in a case study, and interview with the Director of Residence Life, Alex Blandeburgo. In the case study portion, the dormitories’ refrigeration, electricity, steam, and water consumption rates were investigated and compared. These 4 energy types were then looked at from a cost perspective. Lastly, the use of sustainable materials was compared, as well as the construction techniques, and design of each dormitory, and how this could affect social habits, as well as energy use in the dorms. There were some very interesting findings that can be taken from this report. To begin, Manzanita – Mohave was deemed the more sustainable dorm, as its overall energy consumption rates per square foot were much lower than Coronado’s (refrigeration, steam, electricity, and water). In addition to this, Manzi – Mo had less of a cost burden on energy, and its construction methods facilitated less energy use. Additionally, the social habits of Coronado’s residents seem to favor much higher energy uses, which were attributed to their response to the construction methods of the Coronado. These essential results and theories were supported by the experiences of Alex Blandeburgo, and quintessentially mean that a residence hall’s energy efficiency is effected more by the residents that live in it and their habits, rather than its construction techniques, or LEED certification.
    • Evidence Based Principles for Transit Oriented Development

      Pennick, Christopher; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Cervelli, Jan; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-05-13)
      This paper discusses the theory of transit oriented development and attempts to create an effectually structured set of best practices through the study and modification of the documentation that currently exist. To identify the core elements or “principles” that go into constructing a transit oriented development plan. To do this a [deconstructive] qualitative survey of more than 30 projects or municipal planning documents that self-identified as transit oriented was conducted. The result was six goals that were deemed essential to the creation of “good” transit oriented development. The six goals were then combined with empirical research from academic and practicing professionals in the field to form recommendations for new best practices.
    • GIS Spatial Decision Support for Sustainable Landscape Design

      Iuliano, Joey; Jackson, Chloe; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Livingston, Margaret Dr + Wissler, Craig Dr (The University of Arizona, 2015)
      The purpose of this study is to create a spatial decision support system for sustainable landscape design in an urban setting. As more and more of the worlds population concentrates in cites, the design of these spaces becomes critical to global sustainability. The built environment exhibits different environmental conditions than its rural or natural counterparts— the following study focuses on building a GIS model of unique sun exposure conditions at a site, and using this model in a spatial decision support system. The system will compare the exposure needs of just over 150 native or near native plants with the exposure availability of Tucson’s Historic Y Building, and provide tailored list for each area. This will allow for design flexibility within sustainable parameters.
    • Pedestrian Activity of the University of Arizona: How the Built Environment Informs Mental Image and Pedestrian Activity of Campus Districts

      Campbell, Nora; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Robinson, Clare, Ph.D; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-12-17)
      The campus environment faces many of the same challenges of building quality pedestrian experience that urban environments do. Environmental psychology, related to the built environment, investigates how elements of the built environment affect the mental image and pedestrian experience within places. This study aims to investigate the planning history of the Historic, Science, and Highland districts of the University of Arizona campus, and what elements of each district influence the mental image for pedestrians, and what can be done to better each district. Pedestrian-scale architectural features, accessible natural features, and cohesive pedestrian-oriented plans with mixed uses were found to create successful districts or the lack there of to reduce the quality and use of districts on the University of Arizona campus.
    • Sustainable Residential Development in the Southwest

      Donovan, Brian; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-05-09)
      The goal of this study is to address the issues of sustainable residential housing in the United States, more specifically Tucson and the arid climate of the southwest. Until recent years the lack of awareness for sustainable practices has not damaged society, but currently, mankind’s impacts on the planet are unprecedented. As we progress into the future, acknowledgment of this problem needs to be addressed with innovation and solutions to secure a guaranteed healthy future for humanity, the species that humanity coexists with, and planet Earth. This study examines the principles of development that best produce sustainability and addresses building form and material use, solar orientation and shading, and land-use efficiency and governmental policy. These aspects of development are examined in detail by contrasting a typical University of Arizona rental development and a development that was constructed with sustainable consciousness for Tucson’s local population. Sustainable residential development is an issue that must begin on large scale with government policy and lawmakers, and end with individual home residencies and educated personal environmental decisions. The study found that, while there are many different aspects of sustainable development that are influenced by countless variables, a sense of cooperation among all phases of construction is the most effective way to guarantee a smooth transition into a more sustainable future.