• Adapting a Green Roof in Tucson, Arizona

      Iuliano, Joseph; Cutter, Shea; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Gilette, Heather (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Buildings that implement a green roof on their rooftop generate economic and environmental benefits throughout its lifetime than a conventional roof cannot. A space that would normally not be utilized is transformed to benefit the building's operations and occupants. However, there is little research on green roof applications in hot and arid urban climates. This paper is based on an extensive literature review on the current capabilities of green roofs to generate enough savings and benefits to a building to combat the initial installation fee. Finding the Net Present Value (NPV) of the cost of installation and benefits of a green roof is used to create a benefit analysis. In order for more research to be done in hot and air urban green roofs there needs to be a market for it. This research paper uses a benefit analysis to break down the economic feasibility of the investment based on the savings and benefits received after construction. The site location used to generate the data for this proposal is on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape East building (CAPLA East). The analysis demonstrated that a 5,000 square foot extensive green roof would be economically feasible based off of the NPV of the savings and benefits created after construction. Furthermore, the research identified that the plants best fit for the weather conditions of a green roof are the drought-resistant plants found in the Sonoran Desert that Tucson is a part of.
    • Adaptive Reuse as a Sustainable Solution

      Breckenridge, Lauren; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      The scope of the research if focusing on how adaptive reuse of historic buildings satisfies the three pillars of sustainability. The implementation of adaptive reuse will reduce environmental impact, provide a place for communities to learn and interact with, and bring money into the local economy. The methodology for the study included an online survey, case studies, and literature reviews. This allowed the research to be unbiased and to obtain current research on the topic to figure out if there is a lack of knowledge on the topic. Case studies offer real-world examples of adaptive reuse in and their payoffs. The literature reviews provide information on the concepts and strategies that are involved with adaptive reuse. An online survey was conducted to grasp the general public’s knowledge of the topic. The purpose of researching adaptive reuse in historic buildings is to persuade people to restore a property for a new use rather than constructing a new building. This practice will be able to fulfill social, environmental, and economic sustainability in communities. The findings towards the research topic implied that more research and implementation of adaptive reuse in historic buildings need to be utilized to show the benefits as a sustainable solution.
    • Adaptive Reuse of Shopping Malls - Case Study of the Foothills Mall in Tucson, AZ

      Brown, Ian; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-04-23)
      Dead and dying shopping malls are pervasive in the United States and abroad. What were once proxy town centers, created with the best of intentions during the expansion of cities into suburbs after World War II, are now often a blight on the communities they once served. Although malls remained vibrant hubs of activity for decades, drawing in ever more development around them, the model became diluted, focusing far too much on retail and profit. Ultimately, consumers tired of the mall and directed much of their spending to big box stores, the “category killers,” and their free time to a new “third place,” outdoor lifestyle centers. Shopping malls had weathered downturns in the past, but the advent of internet retailing dealt malls a final blow, one that would be unrecoverable while in their current form. How to deal with these properties is a question for landlords and communities in nearly every municipality in the nation. Adaptive reuse has emerged as a promising solution that utilizes the existing infrastructure, limits the demolition of the site, and renews the vibrant activity that once took place in these “town centers.” The Foothills Mall in Tucson, Arizona (currently referred to as “Uptown” on the Bourne Companies website) is a compelling case study for adaptive reuse. It is a prime example of a shopping mall that once flourished during the growth of a city and then went through two downturns into vacancy. A Specific Plan for mixed-use has already been approved by Pima County for its redevelopment, keeping portions of the existing property in-tact. The literature on shopping malls, their history, golden years, decline, and renewal is reviewed along with industry publications and the Specific Plan. Interviews with industry leaders add insights. Best practices are discussed to support, challenge, and guide future decisions.
    • Adaptive Use: A Guide Towards Sustainable Regeneration

      Cardenas, Alexis; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Nader V; Iuliano, Joseph E (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-12)
      Sprawling development continues to be the common method of creating a built environment that facilitates the growing proportion of people living in urban settings. Inadvertently, this brings forth many social, economic, and environmental adversities that cause for a redirection of development. Adaptive use is an architectural conservation strategy takes an existing building and rehabilitates it so that it can serve a new use. The rehabilitation process improves the performance of an existing building while suppressing many of the negative effects associated with the sprawling development and new construction. The purpose of this report is to draw upon successful adaptive use practices to create an outline of methods can be applied to future projects of a similar nature.
    • Addressing Sustainable Management of Natural Resource Use: Coltan

      Makabu, Moïse; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.) is home of Tin, Gold and Coltan which is extracted from tantalum (Ta) and is a key mineral in the production of cellular devices, laptops, aviation components and other electronics. With the mining practices having an effect on land, wildlife & biodiversity, government officials and industry leaders worldwide must adopt sustainable approaches and socially responsible policies and report on their implementations to assess impacts. The movement towards sustainable management of natural resources in the D.R.C. would require proposing organisations such as the United Nations Global Compact to take initiatives in aiming to encourage D.R.C.’s mining industries and coltan-using industries worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies.
    • Adopting Geothermal Heat Pumps

      Camarena, Paul; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Global climate change is a major problem we are facing. Thirty percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions are being produced by electricity production, while six percent is produced by buildings. Climate change is happening now. This capstone examines the way in which the use of the earth’s natural properties can help combat climate change through the use of Geothermal heat pumps in the residential sector.
    • Adopting Sustainable Transportation Design: Mitigating Heat Island Effects in Tucson Communities

      Vega, Daniel; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-13)
      This study looks at the communities located in two zip codes of Tucson, AZ, which are 85713 & 85757. In this research, solutions for issues such as Urban sprawl, Urban heat island effects, and insignificant usage of active transportation methods are explored. Residents of both areas participated in two surveys. We concluded that many of the residents heavily rely on automobiles for travel, especially in the area of 85757 because they are far from the major urban centers. Also, many of the residents of both zip codes felt that their neighborhood was too hot to consider active transportation methods and that activities such as biking and walking were unsafe or inaccessible. However, through the surveys, many participants are open to consider and adopt active transportation methods should their neighborhoods and built environments allow for it. We can allow this to become a reality through sustainable design. With programs such as Tucson’s complete streets and Bike Boulevards, we can promote healthier and safer transportation. A sustainable street model was developed to promote safe active transportation, create shade while lessening heat island effects, and beautify the city of Tucson.
    • The Age of Net Zero

      Le, Joseph; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Magdy, Omar (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Captivated by the sustainable design principles and concepts, this study explores the definition of what is net zero and how has this concept become the new standard in today’s society. By analyzing several case studies, the qualitative and quantitative data will give insight into developing the ideal performance of green and sustainable buildings in relation to a net zero energy focus. The idea of sustainable design began as an economic tool to reduce high energy consumption in order to minimize cost in building construction. Nonetheless, this practice has evolved further into elevating the social and environmental, as well as economic standards of building design in the twenty-first century.
    • An Alternative Approach to a Achieve Water Resiliency

      Anderson, Jack; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      This case study of Auckland, New Zealand, examines an alternative method of water supply. Centralized water utility networks supply the majority of water to all municipal sectors. Increased population and an outdated and failing distribution system mean water shortages and restrictions are becoming more frequent occurrences for the cities around the world. The uncertainty of water resiliency must be brought into question regarding the future supply of water for Aucklander’s who are becoming increasingly subject to restrictions placed on water use. This study looks at rainwater harvesting as an alternative method of water supply to the failing centralized system. Water supply, obtained from flow data provided by the utility, indicate seasonal water use patterns. GIS analysis of each distribution zone in Auckland provides a clear analysis of each structure’s roof area. Runoff Data compiled from 70,834 structures suggests that runoff from precipitation events would be sufficient to fully replace centralized supply in months of higher rainfall. Partial offsets of ≥ 75% were also simulated in 5 of the 7 distribution zones studied. The correlation between roof area + runoff produced and water supplied from the utility is also examined to determine the best zone for implementing this alternative approach.
    • Alternative Sustainable Design within an Established Structure

      Cooney, Katie; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Griffiths, Jason; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2015-05-08)
      This thesis seeks to develop an alternative sustainable design for the CareLink of Jackson medical facility. Through a thorough analysis of the structure, community, environment, and user interaction within and around the building, a complete understanding of the facility's needs, successes and failures were composed. Based on this analysis, an alternative design was then proposed of which incorporates improvements to the building's green space, solar utilization, and social integration. This final design analysis and recommendation can be used to inform similar redevelopment of established structures in the benefits of sustainable integration within architecture.
    • AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT: A Look at Mixed-use Developments in Tucson, Arizona

      Freeman, Nicole; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bekat, Camila; Iuliano, Joesph (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Rapid urbanization has profoundly reshaped societies, economies, and the natural environment. Urban populations currently sit around 80% and 40% for developed and developing countries respectively with cities accounting for nearly all future population growth. The impacts of urbanization are vast lending to low density areas, traffic congestion, automobile reliance, pollution, and biodiversity loss. Sustainable development is essential to maintaining the integrity of the world with current and future anticipated levels of urbanization. Mixed-use developments or those which combine three or more integrated revenue producing uses are a form of sustainable development which can help mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. Benefits of mixed-use include pedestrian and bicycle friendly areas, place-making, increased revenue, and reduced automobile reliance and pollution. This research attempts to determine the most successful form of mixed-use development in downtown Tucson, Arizona. This study boundary was chosen because downtown Tucson is in a state of revitalization and it is important to analyze how developers and the City of Tucson are making use of land. For the purpose of this research a case study analysis was performed on three mixed-use developments, the Cadence at Congress Street and 4th Avenue, One East Broadway at Broadway Boulevard and Stone Avenue, and the Mercado San Agustin at Congress Avenue and Avenida del Convento. Each development was examined and rated based on economic, social, and environmental success. All three developments scored fairly similarly but the Cadence scored the highest with low operating costs, the creation of a high volume jobs, and a location near transit and pedestrian and bicycle friendly areas.
    • Amphitheater High School’s Outdoor Classroom: A Study in the Application of Design

      Rioux, Andre; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Livingston, Margaret Phd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-06)
      There has been a nationwide movement which has promoted urban agriculture. The locale, seasonality, and methods of cultivation, have all entered the spotlight of public consciousness. While farmer’s markets, and co-ops may sometimes have limited accessibility with respect to cost another community gardens are branch of the urban agriculture movement which are highly accessible. The surge in popularity of community gardens came with the 2008 market crash, which created many foreclosures, and accordingly vacant lots. Where vacant lots are reclaimed by citizens, they create a sense of ownership within a community, they become physical manifestations of neighborhood rally cries, elbows rub, and community connections are made. With a relatively small amount of initial input, and continued care, there are tangible outputs, and literal fruits of labor. The popularity of these gardens extends to schools, and a whole branch of pedagogy which emphasizes place based learning. The benefits to these schools is tremendous; students are offered the opportunity to be academically engaged in a space other than the traditional classroom. Community gardens show the potential to create value from little input. With the benefit of a structured design process, there is potential to make school gardens learning space, in addition to growing space. The intent of this study is to explore the value created for these spaces by a formalized design process.
    • AN ANALYSIS OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUPPLY & DEMAND IN TUCSON, ARIZONA

      Wong, Hannah; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-06)
      Housing is a basic necessity that should be available to everyone at every income level. The danger of becoming a cost burdened household (household spending 30% or more of the area median income on housing costs) is high for all income levels. However, extremely low income households are one of the demographics that are the most susceptible because they have limited affordable housing units available to them at their income level. Addressing this gap between income and affordability in housing is something that is particularly important to ensure that these extremely low income households have enough money for not only housing but other basic necessities such as food. Various incentives and programs are out there to try and provide these extremely low income households with the affordable housing they need however, it does not always happen in the areas that are the most in need. This study will examine the supply and demand of affordable housing for extremely low income households in Tucson, Arizona. The research identifies areas that have clusters of extremely low income households that are cost burdened as well as the affordable housing units available to them. Based on this information funding sources are discussed and recommendations regarding how to implement more affordable housing units in the areas of need are discussed.
    • Analysis of Best Management Practices for Addressing Urban Stormwater Runoff

      Maass, Amanda; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Perkl, Ryan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      During Tucson rainstorms, many roads and neighborhoods experience high levels of flooding on the city’s street networks. This phenomenon creates unsafe road conditions, damage to the road infrastructure, and excessive urban stormwater runoff that is potentially polluted. The vast quantities of impervious surfaces in the urban landscape impede the rainwater’s ability to infiltrate the ground, thus resulting in increased volumes of runoff during a rainstorm. Stormwater management is used by municipalities and communities to address the previously mentioned adverse impacts of stormwater runoff. Various techniques and strategies used in stormwater management include, low impact development (LID), green infrastructure, and better site design (BSD) strategies implemented during design stages to reduce stormwater runoff levels. In addition, local governments can establish stormwater utilities and policies in order to help address and better manage the issue of stormwater runoff within urban areas. The primary research questions of this study will include: What are the most effective best management practices and techniques to address urban runoff? What combination of best management practices and government policies will be the more effective in addressing Tucson’s urban runoff problem? Accordingly, this study will examine a variety of policies and techniques to address stormwater runoff, and then, based on this information, provide a suggestion of the best practices and techniques that may be feasible for implementation in Tucson.
    • Analysis of Best Management Practices for Addressing Urban Stormwater Runoff

      Maass, Amanda; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Perkl, Ryan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      During Tucson rainstorms, many roads and neighborhoods experience high levels of flooding on the city’s street networks. This phenomenon creates unsafe road conditions, damage to the road infrastructure, and excessive urban stormwater runoff that is potentially polluted. The vast quantities of impervious surfaces in the urban landscape impede the rainwater’s ability to infiltrate the ground, thus resulting in increased volumes of runoff during a rainstorm. Stormwater management is used by municipalities and communities to address the previously mentioned adverse impacts of stormwater runoff. Various techniques and strategies used in stormwater management include, low impact development (LID), green infrastructure, and better site design (BSD) strategies implemented during design stages to reduce stormwater runoff levels. In addition, local governments can establish stormwater utilities and policies in order to help address and better manage the issue of stormwater runoff within urban areas. The primary research questions of this study will include: What are the most effective best management practices and techniques to address urban runoff? What combination of best management practices and government policies will be the more effective in addressing Tucson’s urban runoff problem? Accordingly, this study will examine a variety of policies and techniques to address stormwater runoff, and then, based on this information, provide a suggestion of the best practices and techniques that may be feasible for implementation in Tucson.
    • Analysis of Pricing Variation in Aesthetic and Sustainable Features

      Pietrack, Elizabeth; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Andrew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      In today’s market there are two major categories of home features that home buyers choose from: sustainable or aesthetic. In a residential housing context, sustainable home features are considered as those that reduce the energy consumption of the home while aesthetic home features do not have an effect on energy consumption. While there have been several studies conducted on appraising sustainable or aesthetic features alone this research aims to directly compare the two through a sales comparison approach of Taylor Morrison and Meritage Homes new construction comparable sales homes in the Queen Creek subdivision of Victoria Estates. A sales comparison approach enables each feature type to be analyzed individually for how it affects the pricing variation of a home with its implementation through comparing comparable sales homes to a subject home without the feature type that is being valued. Through this methodology the pricing variation of homes with the inclusion of sustainable features alone was found to consist of an average pricing increase of $39,117 for Meritage homes and a $17,861 increase for Taylor Morrison homes in comparison to aesthetic and sustainable features at an average $47,817 increase for Meritage Homes and $26,561 for Taylor Morrison homes. This research lends itself to providing prospective home buyers with guides on what home features will actively make their homes investments such as MERV 8 filters, a HERS rating of 58, among other findings. In addition, the research highlights which standard, included sustainable and aesthetic features increase the pricing variation of a home from each homebuilder and should be prioritized in being offered as included based on their investment value to home buyers.
    • Analysis of the Built Environment of Manufactured Housing Communities in Tucson, Arizona

      Sandoval, Myriam; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-14)
      This study will analyze the built environments of three large, manufactured housing communities in Tucson, Arizona. The three communities were chosen using existing research of manufactured housing density in Pima County. With the implementation of a rating system incorporating aspects of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and the SITES Rating system, the three communities were assessed on several criteria, each on a scale of one to five. The essential problem that the built environment of manufactured communities face is an abundance of asphalt and a lacking green open space and shading. The research question being posed will determine which of the three manufactured communities suffers the most from an abundance of concrete and asphalt. From the analysis, it was determined that two of the manufactured communities, Plaza del Sol and Country Club Manufactured Housing Community, were given the same assessment from the rating system that was utilized to answer the research question. Given the limited rights residents in these communities have over land ownership, it is often challenging to achieve green infrastructure practices in these communities to promote more shading and green open space.
    • Analysis of The Effect of Building Energy Conservation on Reducing Carbon Emissions

      West, Cortney; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Dr. Nader; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-05-09)
      Climate change is gaining speed and affecting the life on earth in increasingly drastic ways. Humans are the main cause for climate change with the primary driver being amplified greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are the largest contributors of greenhouse gases, and both are done for human needs and comfort. A major source of greenhouse gases is the energy used to run buildings. Specifically, heating, cooling, and lighting are the largest users of electric; therefore, the largest contributors to climate change. This report takes an in depth look at building energy uses, how the energy used for these systems can be reduced, and how much carbon emissions can be cut by implementing appropriate design strategies and using proper materials for the climate. Computer programs COMcheck and eQUEST were used to analyze building energy performance and analyze the effect of alternate energy strategies. The results show that minimal modifications at the design stage of planning a building can decrease energy needs by up to 45% by passively using the environment as a power source. The results also display that using sensible materials can have a big impact on the long-term carbon emissions of a building. The analysis for this report was designed specifically for commercial buildings; therefore, future research would include the carbon emission analysis for residential buildings.
    • Analyzing Social Equity: The Influence of the Built Environment on Educational Opportunities in Tucson, Arizona

      Baird James, Emma; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Social equity is an often-overlooked aspect of sustainability and is vital to the health of a community. The most successful sustainable initiatives benefit not only the environment and the economy, but consider the impacts on people as well. Education is an indicator of success and has the potential to improve the lives of low-income populations. Opportunities to receive high-quality education can foster social equity in communities by improving the lives of lower-income cohorts. While the link between the built environment and education level has been discussed, there is insufficient empirical evidence to support this connection. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between the built environment and high-school graduation rates, as an indicator of better opportunities for youth. Case studies of the three highest-rated high schools and the three lowest-rated high schools in Tucson, Arizona compare demographics of their surrounding neighborhoods. Social Equity Scores are assigned to each school and its two-mile radius to provide a view of equity through education opportunities in Tucson. Findings indicate that lower-quality education options are more readily available in areas of concentrated low-income and minority populations. The best high schools in Tucson are most available in neighborhoods with higher incomes and less minority residents. Some of the highest-rated schools in Tucson have equitable aspects, but still pose challenges to the provision of quality education to all. By increasing our understanding of equity issues related to the built environment, we can direct urban planning efforts toward more just and equitable societies.
    • Application of a Green Roof on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture

      Horn, Patricia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Esser, Michael; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      In the United States, commercial rooftops are too often an afterthought, serving only to house HVAC systems and other utilitarian building components. Rooftops are the most underutilized valuable spaces in buildings. They comprise a great deal of real estate that could help boost a building’s energy efficiency, aesthetics, and even the wellness of occupants. Buildings are the leading contributors to energy consumption in the country, and implementing green roofs could significantly mitigate this energy use, so costly to society in so many ways. This proposal studies the benefits of implementing a green roof on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture (CAPLA) in Tucson, Arizona. Extensive research was conducted on the implementation of a green roof in this hot arid region, as well as a survey among a pool of 50 occupants. The conclusions drawn: a green roof would be utilized by occupants, and would bring about benefits including cleaner air, an expanded roof lifespan, and reduced heat island effect. Conclusions also demonstrate that the cost of implementing a green roof might not be offset by energy savings alone, but when considering the benefits and costs to society, a green roof ultimately proves beneficial economically as well.