• Adapting a Green Roof in Tucson, Arizona

      Iuliano, Joseph; Cutter, Shea; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Gilette, Heather (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Buildings that implement a green roof on their rooftop generate economic and environmental benefits throughout its lifetime than a conventional roof cannot. A space that would normally not be utilized is transformed to benefit the building's operations and occupants. However, there is little research on green roof applications in hot and arid urban climates. This paper is based on an extensive literature review on the current capabilities of green roofs to generate enough savings and benefits to a building to combat the initial installation fee. Finding the Net Present Value (NPV) of the cost of installation and benefits of a green roof is used to create a benefit analysis. In order for more research to be done in hot and air urban green roofs there needs to be a market for it. This research paper uses a benefit analysis to break down the economic feasibility of the investment based on the savings and benefits received after construction. The site location used to generate the data for this proposal is on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape East building (CAPLA East). The analysis demonstrated that a 5,000 square foot extensive green roof would be economically feasible based off of the NPV of the savings and benefits created after construction. Furthermore, the research identified that the plants best fit for the weather conditions of a green roof are the drought-resistant plants found in the Sonoran Desert that Tucson is a part of.
    • Adaptive Reuse as a Sustainable Solution

      Breckenridge, Lauren; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      The scope of the research if focusing on how adaptive reuse of historic buildings satisfies the three pillars of sustainability. The implementation of adaptive reuse will reduce environmental impact, provide a place for communities to learn and interact with, and bring money into the local economy. The methodology for the study included an online survey, case studies, and literature reviews. This allowed the research to be unbiased and to obtain current research on the topic to figure out if there is a lack of knowledge on the topic. Case studies offer real-world examples of adaptive reuse in and their payoffs. The literature reviews provide information on the concepts and strategies that are involved with adaptive reuse. An online survey was conducted to grasp the general public’s knowledge of the topic. The purpose of researching adaptive reuse in historic buildings is to persuade people to restore a property for a new use rather than constructing a new building. This practice will be able to fulfill social, environmental, and economic sustainability in communities. The findings towards the research topic implied that more research and implementation of adaptive reuse in historic buildings need to be utilized to show the benefits as a sustainable solution.
    • Adaptive Use: A Guide Towards Sustainable Regeneration

      Cardenas, Alexis; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Nader V; Iuliano, Joseph E (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-12)
      Sprawling development continues to be the common method of creating a built environment that facilitates the growing proportion of people living in urban settings. Inadvertently, this brings forth many social, economic, and environmental adversities that cause for a redirection of development. Adaptive use is an architectural conservation strategy takes an existing building and rehabilitates it so that it can serve a new use. The rehabilitation process improves the performance of an existing building while suppressing many of the negative effects associated with the sprawling development and new construction. The purpose of this report is to draw upon successful adaptive use practices to create an outline of methods can be applied to future projects of a similar nature.
    • Addressing Sustainable Management of Natural Resource Use: Coltan

      Makabu, Moïse; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.) is home of Tin, Gold and Coltan which is extracted from tantalum (Ta) and is a key mineral in the production of cellular devices, laptops, aviation components and other electronics. With the mining practices having an effect on land, wildlife & biodiversity, government officials and industry leaders worldwide must adopt sustainable approaches and socially responsible policies and report on their implementations to assess impacts. The movement towards sustainable management of natural resources in the D.R.C. would require proposing organisations such as the United Nations Global Compact to take initiatives in aiming to encourage D.R.C.’s mining industries and coltan-using industries worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies.
    • Adopting Geothermal Heat Pumps

      Camarena, Paul; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Global climate change is a major problem we are facing. Thirty percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions are being produced by electricity production, while six percent is produced by buildings. Climate change is happening now. This capstone examines the way in which the use of the earth’s natural properties can help combat climate change through the use of Geothermal heat pumps in the residential sector.
    • The Age of Net Zero

      Le, Joseph; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Magdy, Omar (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Captivated by the sustainable design principles and concepts, this study explores the definition of what is net zero and how has this concept become the new standard in today’s society. By analyzing several case studies, the qualitative and quantitative data will give insight into developing the ideal performance of green and sustainable buildings in relation to a net zero energy focus. The idea of sustainable design began as an economic tool to reduce high energy consumption in order to minimize cost in building construction. Nonetheless, this practice has evolved further into elevating the social and environmental, as well as economic standards of building design in the twenty-first century.
    • Alternative Sustainable Design within an Established Structure

      Cooney, Katie; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Griffiths, Jason; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2015-05-08)
      This thesis seeks to develop an alternative sustainable design for the CareLink of Jackson medical facility. Through a thorough analysis of the structure, community, environment, and user interaction within and around the building, a complete understanding of the facility's needs, successes and failures were composed. Based on this analysis, an alternative design was then proposed of which incorporates improvements to the building's green space, solar utilization, and social integration. This final design analysis and recommendation can be used to inform similar redevelopment of established structures in the benefits of sustainable integration within architecture.
    • AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT: A Look at Mixed-use Developments in Tucson, Arizona

      Freeman, Nicole; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bekat, Camila; Iuliano, Joesph (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Rapid urbanization has profoundly reshaped societies, economies, and the natural environment. Urban populations currently sit around 80% and 40% for developed and developing countries respectively with cities accounting for nearly all future population growth. The impacts of urbanization are vast lending to low density areas, traffic congestion, automobile reliance, pollution, and biodiversity loss. Sustainable development is essential to maintaining the integrity of the world with current and future anticipated levels of urbanization. Mixed-use developments or those which combine three or more integrated revenue producing uses are a form of sustainable development which can help mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. Benefits of mixed-use include pedestrian and bicycle friendly areas, place-making, increased revenue, and reduced automobile reliance and pollution. This research attempts to determine the most successful form of mixed-use development in downtown Tucson, Arizona. This study boundary was chosen because downtown Tucson is in a state of revitalization and it is important to analyze how developers and the City of Tucson are making use of land. For the purpose of this research a case study analysis was performed on three mixed-use developments, the Cadence at Congress Street and 4th Avenue, One East Broadway at Broadway Boulevard and Stone Avenue, and the Mercado San Agustin at Congress Avenue and Avenida del Convento. Each development was examined and rated based on economic, social, and environmental success. All three developments scored fairly similarly but the Cadence scored the highest with low operating costs, the creation of a high volume jobs, and a location near transit and pedestrian and bicycle friendly areas.
    • Amphitheater High School’s Outdoor Classroom: A Study in the Application of Design

      Rioux, Andre; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Livingston, Margaret Phd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-06)
      There has been a nationwide movement which has promoted urban agriculture. The locale, seasonality, and methods of cultivation, have all entered the spotlight of public consciousness. While farmer’s markets, and co-ops may sometimes have limited accessibility with respect to cost another community gardens are branch of the urban agriculture movement which are highly accessible. The surge in popularity of community gardens came with the 2008 market crash, which created many foreclosures, and accordingly vacant lots. Where vacant lots are reclaimed by citizens, they create a sense of ownership within a community, they become physical manifestations of neighborhood rally cries, elbows rub, and community connections are made. With a relatively small amount of initial input, and continued care, there are tangible outputs, and literal fruits of labor. The popularity of these gardens extends to schools, and a whole branch of pedagogy which emphasizes place based learning. The benefits to these schools is tremendous; students are offered the opportunity to be academically engaged in a space other than the traditional classroom. Community gardens show the potential to create value from little input. With the benefit of a structured design process, there is potential to make school gardens learning space, in addition to growing space. The intent of this study is to explore the value created for these spaces by a formalized design process.
    • AN ANALYSIS OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUPPLY & DEMAND IN TUCSON, ARIZONA

      Wong, Hannah; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-06)
      Housing is a basic necessity that should be available to everyone at every income level. The danger of becoming a cost burdened household (household spending 30% or more of the area median income on housing costs) is high for all income levels. However, extremely low income households are one of the demographics that are the most susceptible because they have limited affordable housing units available to them at their income level. Addressing this gap between income and affordability in housing is something that is particularly important to ensure that these extremely low income households have enough money for not only housing but other basic necessities such as food. Various incentives and programs are out there to try and provide these extremely low income households with the affordable housing they need however, it does not always happen in the areas that are the most in need. This study will examine the supply and demand of affordable housing for extremely low income households in Tucson, Arizona. The research identifies areas that have clusters of extremely low income households that are cost burdened as well as the affordable housing units available to them. Based on this information funding sources are discussed and recommendations regarding how to implement more affordable housing units in the areas of need are discussed.
    • Analysis of Best Management Practices for Addressing Urban Stormwater Runoff

      Maass, Amanda; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Perkl, Ryan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      During Tucson rainstorms, many roads and neighborhoods experience high levels of flooding on the city’s street networks. This phenomenon creates unsafe road conditions, damage to the road infrastructure, and excessive urban stormwater runoff that is potentially polluted. The vast quantities of impervious surfaces in the urban landscape impede the rainwater’s ability to infiltrate the ground, thus resulting in increased volumes of runoff during a rainstorm. Stormwater management is used by municipalities and communities to address the previously mentioned adverse impacts of stormwater runoff. Various techniques and strategies used in stormwater management include, low impact development (LID), green infrastructure, and better site design (BSD) strategies implemented during design stages to reduce stormwater runoff levels. In addition, local governments can establish stormwater utilities and policies in order to help address and better manage the issue of stormwater runoff within urban areas. The primary research questions of this study will include: What are the most effective best management practices and techniques to address urban runoff? What combination of best management practices and government policies will be the more effective in addressing Tucson’s urban runoff problem? Accordingly, this study will examine a variety of policies and techniques to address stormwater runoff, and then, based on this information, provide a suggestion of the best practices and techniques that may be feasible for implementation in Tucson.
    • Analysis of Best Management Practices for Addressing Urban Stormwater Runoff

      Maass, Amanda; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Perkl, Ryan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      During Tucson rainstorms, many roads and neighborhoods experience high levels of flooding on the city’s street networks. This phenomenon creates unsafe road conditions, damage to the road infrastructure, and excessive urban stormwater runoff that is potentially polluted. The vast quantities of impervious surfaces in the urban landscape impede the rainwater’s ability to infiltrate the ground, thus resulting in increased volumes of runoff during a rainstorm. Stormwater management is used by municipalities and communities to address the previously mentioned adverse impacts of stormwater runoff. Various techniques and strategies used in stormwater management include, low impact development (LID), green infrastructure, and better site design (BSD) strategies implemented during design stages to reduce stormwater runoff levels. In addition, local governments can establish stormwater utilities and policies in order to help address and better manage the issue of stormwater runoff within urban areas. The primary research questions of this study will include: What are the most effective best management practices and techniques to address urban runoff? What combination of best management practices and government policies will be the more effective in addressing Tucson’s urban runoff problem? Accordingly, this study will examine a variety of policies and techniques to address stormwater runoff, and then, based on this information, provide a suggestion of the best practices and techniques that may be feasible for implementation in Tucson.
    • Analysis of Pricing Variation in Aesthetic and Sustainable Features

      Pietrack, Elizabeth; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Andrew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      In today’s market there are two major categories of home features that home buyers choose from: sustainable or aesthetic. In a residential housing context, sustainable home features are considered as those that reduce the energy consumption of the home while aesthetic home features do not have an effect on energy consumption. While there have been several studies conducted on appraising sustainable or aesthetic features alone this research aims to directly compare the two through a sales comparison approach of Taylor Morrison and Meritage Homes new construction comparable sales homes in the Queen Creek subdivision of Victoria Estates. A sales comparison approach enables each feature type to be analyzed individually for how it affects the pricing variation of a home with its implementation through comparing comparable sales homes to a subject home without the feature type that is being valued. Through this methodology the pricing variation of homes with the inclusion of sustainable features alone was found to consist of an average pricing increase of $39,117 for Meritage homes and a $17,861 increase for Taylor Morrison homes in comparison to aesthetic and sustainable features at an average $47,817 increase for Meritage Homes and $26,561 for Taylor Morrison homes. This research lends itself to providing prospective home buyers with guides on what home features will actively make their homes investments such as MERV 8 filters, a HERS rating of 58, among other findings. In addition, the research highlights which standard, included sustainable and aesthetic features increase the pricing variation of a home from each homebuilder and should be prioritized in being offered as included based on their investment value to home buyers.
    • Analysis of The Effect of Building Energy Conservation on Reducing Carbon Emissions

      West, Cortney; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Dr. Nader; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona, 2014-05-09)
      Climate change is gaining speed and affecting the life on earth in increasingly drastic ways. Humans are the main cause for climate change with the primary driver being amplified greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are the largest contributors of greenhouse gases, and both are done for human needs and comfort. A major source of greenhouse gases is the energy used to run buildings. Specifically, heating, cooling, and lighting are the largest users of electric; therefore, the largest contributors to climate change. This report takes an in depth look at building energy uses, how the energy used for these systems can be reduced, and how much carbon emissions can be cut by implementing appropriate design strategies and using proper materials for the climate. Computer programs COMcheck and eQUEST were used to analyze building energy performance and analyze the effect of alternate energy strategies. The results show that minimal modifications at the design stage of planning a building can decrease energy needs by up to 45% by passively using the environment as a power source. The results also display that using sensible materials can have a big impact on the long-term carbon emissions of a building. The analysis for this report was designed specifically for commercial buildings; therefore, future research would include the carbon emission analysis for residential buildings.
    • Analyzing Social Equity: The Influence of the Built Environment on Educational Opportunities in Tucson, Arizona

      Baird James, Emma; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Social equity is an often-overlooked aspect of sustainability and is vital to the health of a community. The most successful sustainable initiatives benefit not only the environment and the economy, but consider the impacts on people as well. Education is an indicator of success and has the potential to improve the lives of low-income populations. Opportunities to receive high-quality education can foster social equity in communities by improving the lives of lower-income cohorts. While the link between the built environment and education level has been discussed, there is insufficient empirical evidence to support this connection. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between the built environment and high-school graduation rates, as an indicator of better opportunities for youth. Case studies of the three highest-rated high schools and the three lowest-rated high schools in Tucson, Arizona compare demographics of their surrounding neighborhoods. Social Equity Scores are assigned to each school and its two-mile radius to provide a view of equity through education opportunities in Tucson. Findings indicate that lower-quality education options are more readily available in areas of concentrated low-income and minority populations. The best high schools in Tucson are most available in neighborhoods with higher incomes and less minority residents. Some of the highest-rated schools in Tucson have equitable aspects, but still pose challenges to the provision of quality education to all. By increasing our understanding of equity issues related to the built environment, we can direct urban planning efforts toward more just and equitable societies.
    • Application of a Green Roof on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture

      Horn, Patricia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Esser, Michael; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      In the United States, commercial rooftops are too often an afterthought, serving only to house HVAC systems and other utilitarian building components. Rooftops are the most underutilized valuable spaces in buildings. They comprise a great deal of real estate that could help boost a building’s energy efficiency, aesthetics, and even the wellness of occupants. Buildings are the leading contributors to energy consumption in the country, and implementing green roofs could significantly mitigate this energy use, so costly to society in so many ways. This proposal studies the benefits of implementing a green roof on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture (CAPLA) in Tucson, Arizona. Extensive research was conducted on the implementation of a green roof in this hot arid region, as well as a survey among a pool of 50 occupants. The conclusions drawn: a green roof would be utilized by occupants, and would bring about benefits including cleaner air, an expanded roof lifespan, and reduced heat island effect. Conclusions also demonstrate that the cost of implementing a green roof might not be offset by energy savings alone, but when considering the benefits and costs to society, a green roof ultimately proves beneficial economically as well.
    • The Application of Porous Concrete

      Curtis, Kyle; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Youssef, Omar; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      The southwest region of the United States is stressed for potable water and needs to positively utilize its current water resource. With the urban environment being mostly made up of concrete, it is now crucial to assess its development and application. The concrete used today is a mixture of cement, water and aggregates and is not permeable. The non-permeable property of common concrete prevents natural water absorption by the earth and greatly inhibits water to percolate back into the local water table. As concrete, has developed, porous concrete has been discovered. Porous concrete or pervious pavement is made in the same way that concrete is made with cement, aggregate, and water, but the aggregate used in porous concrete creates pores that allow water to pass through. By allowing water to pass through concrete, urban development will result in greater ground water recharge. As global warming intensifies weather patterns across the planet, Tucson, Arizona will experience heavier rainfall seasons. As the world’s climate changes, Tucson will experience heavier monsoon rain fall events. With heavier rain fall events urban flooding will become more of an issue. Grey infrastructure is needed to manage flooding caused by heavy rain fall. Porous concrete can be used as an effective way to manage storm water. This capstone has undertaken an extensive range of literature reviews to identify where porous concrete can be used for storm water harvesting. The literature reviews range from climate change to the benefits of storm water harvesting. Porous concrete allows storm water to infiltrate through it and back into the local aquifer and directs storm water into retention ponds for treatment and reuse. Porous concrete is a low impact development (LID) building material, which will turn urban development into Sustainable development. Porous concrete if used correctly for storm water harvesting can reduce potable water stress, reduce pollutants found in local waters, and reduce the strain on current storm drains. The required maintenance associated with porous concrete is minimal and not costly, therefore will be only briefly explained throughout this research. While porous concrete has a wide range of benefits ranging from water percolation to the reduction of the heat island effect, this paper will focus on its use as a means of storm water harvesting.
    • Assessing Suitability of Landscape Palm Trees in the Urban Environments of Southern Arizona

      Calegari, Jake; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Quist, Tanya Ph.D.; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-12)
      Landscape architecture and design play a crucial role in addressing growing concerns over environmental sustainability. Palm trees (plants in the family Aracaceae) are an iconic and ubiquitous part of landscape design in the southwestern United States, but limited research has been conducted on the ecological and economic effects of these species. This research used a case study of the University of Arizona Campus Arboretum to examine the costs and benefits of six of the site’s most ubiquitous palm species: Brahea armata, Washingtonia filifera, Washingtonia robusta, Chamaerops humilis, Phoenix dactylifera, and Phoenix canariensis. The study found the greatest net benefits from Washingtonia robusta, with all other species exhibiting an annual net cost for the university site. However, there is still value inherent in the use of the other palm species; beyond net economic quantitative value, consideration must also be given to additional factors pertinent to the evaluation of plant suitability when selecting plants for a site, on a case-by-case basis.  
    • Biomimicry: ENR 2

      Luliano, Joey; Aljuaid, Hannah; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Luliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-09)
      The idea of using nature, as a design model in building construction is not a new one; this innovative technique is known as biomimicry in architecture. This study focuses on biomimicry and its application in three buildings; The University of Arizona’s new Environmental and Natural Resource Phase 2 (ENR2) building; Architect Mick Pearce’s Eastgate Centre in Harare Zimbabwe; and Council House 2 (CH2) in Melbourne Australia. The research in this paper is centered around the ENR2 building, it examines the extent to which biomimcry is applied in terms of aesthetics and performance, by comparing it to the Eastgate Centre and CH2 buildings.
    • BLOOMING & DYING: AGAVE WITHIN TUCSON’S BUILT ENVIRONMENT

      Livingston, Margaret; McGuire, Grace; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Smith, Steve; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      This study examines one plant species in order to reveal the historical, biological, and social attachments the plant brings to the public and private landscapes in the city of Tucson, Arizona. The life cycle history, cultural attachment, and biological characteristics of the Agave genus are evaluated in terms the relationship between a native, Sonoran Desert adapted species and its use within the urban matrix. The succulent, rosette form is a characteristic that makes the agave species distinct from all other desert plants. Six particular agave species are mentioned within this writing, and are connected to the Tucson area’s cultural history, and current application of agave as a landscaping material. Agaves symbolize a rich history of human utilization and reliance, especially in the cultures of central/northern Mexico. As the industry within the U.S. for mescal products grows, agave on the landscape become distinctly agriculture based. The practices of wild harvesting agave for distillation and not allowing cultivated agaves to bloom impacts the ecosystem functions of northern Sonora, Mexico, and the southwestern United States, and severely limits the populations of wild agaves. It is estimated that in the coming years it will be almost impossible to find certain populations of wild agaves.