• Complete Street Implementation in Tucson

      Paulson, Kameron; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      This study will focus on the implementation of Complete streets in Tucson, AZ and the associated impacts and requirements needed to successfully integrate these projects into the community. As a city predominantly catering towards the automobile, the majority of roads in Tucson lack the fundamentals of non-automobile transit and pedestrian use. With many other forms of transportation available, the city of Tucson must accommodate these other forms of transit to create a well-rounded, strengthened community. Helping accommodate a larger percentage of the total population, the implementation of complete streets would offer safe access for its pedestrian, bicyclist, motorist and transit users at the same time. By creating a community that can effortlessly move and travel by a variety of means, the addition of complete streets in Tucson would yield countless social, economic and environmental benefits. While the implementation of complete streets seems like a worthwhile investment in any community, there are many logistics that play a role in the feasibility of similar projects. With issues such as construction size, time, cost and communal acceptance, complete streets must overcome a number of challenges before taking shape. Through study and analysis, this study will answer the question of how the Tucson community can successfully incorporate complete streets with sufficient funding and backing by the community. Through analysis of other project cases and various data acquisition, this study will focus on a successful complete street proposal for the city of Tucson.  
    • Assessing Suitability of Landscape Palm Trees in the Urban Environments of Southern Arizona

      Calegari, Jake; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Quist, Tanya Ph.D.; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-12)
      Landscape architecture and design play a crucial role in addressing growing concerns over environmental sustainability. Palm trees (plants in the family Aracaceae) are an iconic and ubiquitous part of landscape design in the southwestern United States, but limited research has been conducted on the ecological and economic effects of these species. This research used a case study of the University of Arizona Campus Arboretum to examine the costs and benefits of six of the site’s most ubiquitous palm species: Brahea armata, Washingtonia filifera, Washingtonia robusta, Chamaerops humilis, Phoenix dactylifera, and Phoenix canariensis. The study found the greatest net benefits from Washingtonia robusta, with all other species exhibiting an annual net cost for the university site. However, there is still value inherent in the use of the other palm species; beyond net economic quantitative value, consideration must also be given to additional factors pertinent to the evaluation of plant suitability when selecting plants for a site, on a case-by-case basis.  
    • Adaptive Use: A Guide Towards Sustainable Regeneration

      Cardenas, Alexis; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Nader V; Iuliano, Joseph E (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-12)
      Sprawling development continues to be the common method of creating a built environment that facilitates the growing proportion of people living in urban settings. Inadvertently, this brings forth many social, economic, and environmental adversities that cause for a redirection of development. Adaptive use is an architectural conservation strategy takes an existing building and rehabilitates it so that it can serve a new use. The rehabilitation process improves the performance of an existing building while suppressing many of the negative effects associated with the sprawling development and new construction. The purpose of this report is to draw upon successful adaptive use practices to create an outline of methods can be applied to future projects of a similar nature.
    • Cellulose Aerogel Application in the Built Environment

      Iuliano, Joseph E.; Arceneaux, Dylan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Dr. Smith, Shane; Dr. Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-10)
      A large portion of current architectural design practices utilize insulative materials that are outdated, unsustainable, and harmful to the environment. There is little consideration placed in the lifespan of the insulative materials and often lead towards negative ramifications the environment must face. Continuing in the track of sustainable development, an emerging material known as cellulose aerogel builds off precedent aerogel with a green twist. The issue with implementing a new material, especially one that lacks the research and development of presently used materials, is gathering enough interest to build research funding. Developing a new material that has the potential to mitigate the massive energy consumption could aid architects and designers in designing more sustainable buildings. A cellulose based aerogel system is fabricated with cellulose, a biomass found in nearly all living organisms, is the answer we may need to make sustainable building practices a reality. To determine the validity of a cellulose aerogel system, a rigorous material study and precedence scientific studies will be analyzed to understand the intrinsic properties. The culmination of this information is imperative to drive continued development and implementation under the optimal conditions. Cellulose aerogel will face a multitude of comparisons with each major used insulative materials such as concrete, wood, and fiberglass. Successfully completing these studies will help material researchers and designers to prepare for a greater sustainable future.
    • A Review of Alternative Building Materials in comparison to CMU: Hempcrete, Woodcrete , Papercrete

      Hornby, Rachelle; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Youssef, Omar; Elzomor, Mohamad Alaa; Esser, Michael; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2017-05)
      Buildings consume an extraordinary amout of our finite natural resources during their construction and operation. It is imperative we begin to examine more sustainably-produced materials to construct them, as well as lifecycle costs. Concrete is the most widely-used building material in the world, and aggregate forms the majority of its composition. The goal of this research is to compare building materials incorporating renewable aggregate—hempcrete, woodcrete, and papercrete—as alternatives to traditional concrete utilizing nonrenewable aggregates. Comparing and contrasting commercially-available, similar products helps identify feasible applications for these alternatives to concrete that may prove more responsible, sustainable, and cost-effective throughout a building’s lifecycle.
    • Neighborhood Connectivity, Walkability and Safety in Tucson, AZ

      Pilli, Leslie; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017-04-30)
      This research compares two neighborhoods in Tucson, with similar amenities, and age cohorts but one has adequate sidewalk infrastructure while the other does not. The neighborhoods included are Hedrick Acres and West University. Satellite imagery was used to measure the pathways and categorize them into paved, unpaved and nonexistent. A t-test two-sample assuming unequal variances with the interpretation of a two-tail p-value was done to see if there was a statistically significantly difference between the categories of pathways. It was found that two of the pathway categories had statistically significant findings, unpaved (p-value: 0.0049) and not present (p-value: 0.0181). In addition, this research looks at the effects of inadequate infrastructure through social capital, connectivity, and safety.
    • Solutions to Restrictions on Sustainable Strategies with Homeowner Associations

      Iuliano, Joey; Welch, Madalyn; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2017-04-30)
      Homeowner Associations were originally created through groups of homeowners with similar ideas on what makes a perfect neighborhood. The policies were collaboratively made by these groups who had the same vision for their neighborhood. Over time, Homeowner Associations became more of an enforcement against the homeowners rather than working with the homeowners. The policies created tight restrictions against homeowners and these restrictions became costly. Communal areas within the neighborhood were maintained by Homeowner Association (HOA) fees that can become extremely costly depending on the intensity of the maintenance. This paper suggests solutions to adjusting the Homeowner’s Association policies in order to reduce costs and allow sustainable implementations to homes that may currently be constrained due to strict rules under Homeowner Association policies.
    • Sustainably Covering the Central Arizona Project

      College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The Central Arizona Project is second largest and expansive aqueduct system in the entire United States. It moves more than 1.5 million acre feet of water annually which is only half of its capacity. This engineering marvel is truly incredible that supports millions of people in the state as well as well as millions of people around the United States that are in need of crops year-round. The Southwest is one of the fastest growing regions in the country. With climate change affecting yearly temperatures and water needs in this region increasing, infrastructure of the Central Arizona Project needs to be retrofitted with new technologies to combat against the water loss that comes from evaporation due to the open aired canal. This study was designed to look at three different technologies with the capability of covering the Central Arizona Project canal and reduce the amount of water that is lost annually.
    • Analysis of Pricing Variation in Aesthetic and Sustainable Features

      Pietrack, Elizabeth; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Andrew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      In today’s market there are two major categories of home features that home buyers choose from: sustainable or aesthetic. In a residential housing context, sustainable home features are considered as those that reduce the energy consumption of the home while aesthetic home features do not have an effect on energy consumption. While there have been several studies conducted on appraising sustainable or aesthetic features alone this research aims to directly compare the two through a sales comparison approach of Taylor Morrison and Meritage Homes new construction comparable sales homes in the Queen Creek subdivision of Victoria Estates. A sales comparison approach enables each feature type to be analyzed individually for how it affects the pricing variation of a home with its implementation through comparing comparable sales homes to a subject home without the feature type that is being valued. Through this methodology the pricing variation of homes with the inclusion of sustainable features alone was found to consist of an average pricing increase of $39,117 for Meritage homes and a $17,861 increase for Taylor Morrison homes in comparison to aesthetic and sustainable features at an average $47,817 increase for Meritage Homes and $26,561 for Taylor Morrison homes. This research lends itself to providing prospective home buyers with guides on what home features will actively make their homes investments such as MERV 8 filters, a HERS rating of 58, among other findings. In addition, the research highlights which standard, included sustainable and aesthetic features increase the pricing variation of a home from each homebuilder and should be prioritized in being offered as included based on their investment value to home buyers.
    • Planting a seed in future generations: A Comparative Analysis of the Implementation of Sustainability Principles in Public High Schools of Tucson

      Guerrero Lopez, Ana Lucia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The following paper addresses the importance of sustainability in education and just how imperative it is that students receive an education that includes sustainability values and practices, and where their campuses act as examples of sustainable architecture and as living laboratories. The study was conducted in Tucson Arizona. Three schools from different districts were selected and studied as a means to evaluate the degree of implementation of sustainability principles in their academic curriculum and their built environment, and to identify potential barriers for wide implementation of sustainability principles in schools.
    • Defining Community Gardening: Why People Garden and How to get More Involved

      Chandler, John; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Joey, Iuliano (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      1. Introduction: explanation of how gardening and food production related to agriculture has affected me personally and how that motivated me to choose this topic. 2. Literary review: gardening as we know it – This section will cover what we know about gardening and urban agriculture and how it can benefit the health of people and communities. 3. Literary review: Limits to gardening – This section will begin to discuss the limits and questions the capstone discusses about gardening that has been addressed in literature. What types of people participate in gardening? Why do those people garden? What does it require to garden? 4. Data collection & Results: This section will discuss in principle the collection of data to make a conclusion about gardening and how it affects the population that participate in it and how those can help define how to provide its benefits to more people. This will be structured in three ways, a firsthand analysis of the Community Gardens of Tucson as an intern, an interview with a garden manager with the community gardens, and a case study of a garden there. The interview will focus on what can be done about the population of people that use the gardens and how to recruit would-be gardeners as well as other barriers and challenges to community gardening. The case study will focus on the specific situation that an individual garden may go through. 5. Proposal: This section will discuss a possible way of recruiting more people into the realm of gardening, using the context from data collection and the current literature about the topic. 6. Limitations & Conclusion: This section analyses how the data collected can be used in a practical manner to better the practice of community gardening.
    • Analyzing Social Equity: The Influence of the Built Environment on Educational Opportunities in Tucson, Arizona

      Baird James, Emma; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Social equity is an often-overlooked aspect of sustainability and is vital to the health of a community. The most successful sustainable initiatives benefit not only the environment and the economy, but consider the impacts on people as well. Education is an indicator of success and has the potential to improve the lives of low-income populations. Opportunities to receive high-quality education can foster social equity in communities by improving the lives of lower-income cohorts. While the link between the built environment and education level has been discussed, there is insufficient empirical evidence to support this connection. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between the built environment and high-school graduation rates, as an indicator of better opportunities for youth. Case studies of the three highest-rated high schools and the three lowest-rated high schools in Tucson, Arizona compare demographics of their surrounding neighborhoods. Social Equity Scores are assigned to each school and its two-mile radius to provide a view of equity through education opportunities in Tucson. Findings indicate that lower-quality education options are more readily available in areas of concentrated low-income and minority populations. The best high schools in Tucson are most available in neighborhoods with higher incomes and less minority residents. Some of the highest-rated schools in Tucson have equitable aspects, but still pose challenges to the provision of quality education to all. By increasing our understanding of equity issues related to the built environment, we can direct urban planning efforts toward more just and equitable societies.
    • Solar Powered Stirling Engine

      McHugh, Megan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chan, Cho Lik; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This paper provides a study on the configuration of Stirling engines and the effect using a solar dish as a heat source on efficiency. The Stirling engine was based on the MIT 2.670 design - a Gamma configuration, low temperature differential Stirling engine. Temperature and speed were measured for the base model Stirling engine to determine the initial efficiency. Modifications were planned to add a parabolic mirror as a solar dish and compare the efficiency to the initial design, however, the completed solar Stirling engine testing and data collection is to be performed in the following summer. The work performed by the engine was to be calculated using the Schmidt formula to then find the power output. Results from the completion of this study would indicate how the solar dish effects the power output of the Stirling engine.
    • Sustainable Existing Buildings Through LEED Operations and Maintenance

      Eda, Janice; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      LEED, Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, assists our building industry to become more sustainable. This paper examines three case studies of existing buildings which have evolved to become LEED certified through the rating system of LEED: Operations and Maintenance. Understanding how older generation buildings may still rejuvenate and become sustainable will provide benefits for the people, planet, and profit. As with many things, there are some drawbacks when it comes to LEED certification such as their fees and universal approach for credits acquired.
    • Implementing Green Infrastructure to Address Urban Flooding

      Palomo, Isaac; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Smith, Steven; Dimond, Kirk; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Green infrastructure is defined as a planned and managed natural system which can provide several categories of benefits. Man-made, gray solutions are no longer considered to be a viable solution when designing with resiliency in cities. Gray solutions have replaced naturally occurring vegetation with impervious surfaces. During severe rainfall events, these impervious surfaces have led cities to become more susceptible to flooding as infiltration and retention capacities have been significantly reduced. This study will analyze an area located within a highly urbanized city center and will begin to interpret the performance and impacts that may come after implementing green infrastructure practices. Based on the simulated outcome provided by the National Storm water Calculator, the results will determine if added green infrastructure features can reduce urban flooding.
    • Complete Street Implementation in Tucson Poster

      Paulson, Kameron; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2017)
    • Implementing Green Infrastructure to Address Urban Flooding

      Palomo, Isaac; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Smith, Steven; Dimond, Kirk; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
    • Urbanizing Agriculture; Vertical Farming as a Potential Solution to Food Security Issues

      Quinn, Harley; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Joseph Iuliano (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      As countries around the world continue to deplete natural resources and as the world’s population continues to grow, many industries, as well as people, have begun to suffer from the strain on dwindling natural resources. Agriculture and food distribution industries send goods from all around the world to stock grocery stores, restaurants, and other retail centers. The high costs of the distribution format causes people to be unable to afford food even though the amount of production is more than sufficient. “Enough food is produced worldwide to feed all the people in the world (Leathers and Foster, 2009). However, despite this alarming truth, nearly one billion people are suffering from chronic hunger today. There are a wide range of factors that contribute to this problem, however, the most significant is poor food distribution.” (Mission: Feeding the World, 2014) In an attempt to diminish these issues, organizations such as the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) have focused their research on various ways to grow within smaller regions and lower transportation distances to limit costs. They focus on these attempts largely to reach their Urban Food and Supply goals of providing efficiency in distribution to stabilize supplies of low-cost food to provide for everyone rather than only those who can afford it. (FAO, 2000) Additionally, work has been done to decrease waste at points along the supply chain. The challenge and goal, however, should not be to limit the scope of travel by a small fraction, but completely eradicate it. Focusing on agricultural techniques that occur within urban areas could allow the growth of most agricultural products within the confines of a city. Practicing locally grown agricultural techniques could diminish food distribution costs as the distance of travel would become within a quick drive or walk. The inhabitants of the city could purchase food out of their own neighborhoods at a much lower cost. Restaurants and grocery stores could limit their supplies so that very little went to waste. Additionally, farms would be close by, meaning there would be no issues getting food in enough time as well as allowing a greater awareness of the product’s growing conditions. Residents would immediately have a much greater understanding of their food supply chain and could participate in the growing of those products. Classical agricultural techniques do not work in this setting. In typical agriculture techniques, the growing population will outgrow the amount of land we have to grow crops. (Biello, 2009) Already today, over 80% of the land that is suitable for raising crops is in use (FAO and NASA). Historically, some 15% of that has been laid waste by poor management practices (Despommier, 2011). To simply account for the population growth predicted, food production will have to increase by 70% according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (2011). As the same percentage of people move towards urban living, the question is, should the food production industries follow suit? Unfortunately, space is both limited and at a premium in an urban environment. Vertical farming could be a solution to agriculture needs with population growth. Vertical farming allows skyscrapers to be filled with floor upon floor of orchards and fields, producing crops all year round (Technology Quarterly, 2010). The benefits of successful vertical farming are exceptional as it could reduce transport costs and carbon emissions, free up land, reduce spoilage, and finally, limit the water usage as compared to classic agriculture techniques. Unfortunately, there are limited examples of vertical farming and it remains mostly untested; however, some examples have begun to show up around the world. In the US, no vertical farms have been constructed, although the materials and technology exists. In the 2015 World’s Fair in Milan, this technology was showcased by Biber Architects in their project “Farm Walls”, a hydroponic technology that allows the plants to grow without soil and vertically (ZipGrow, 2017). Knowing the potential benefits of this type of system, the question remains of should agriculture transfer to this arrangement? What are the potential costs of these systems and technologies? Do the benefits outweigh the costs? Finally, what potential downfalls could result for farmers in non-urban environments? This capstone intends to analyze the costs and benefits of vertical farming technology as well as explore case studies of existing vertical farms to determine if it is an appropriate strategy for cities to adapt to address food insecurity.
    • Electrochromic Glass

      Lagunas, Armando; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-11)
      Electrochromic glass is a type of smart glass, a new technology that has potential to reduce the amount of sunlight entering a building by changing its physical properties. The purpose of this study is to understand the properties of electrochromic glass and determine if it is a viable alternative to conventional single pane and double pane glass in the Tucson area. Using research and statistics from smart glass production companies, a comparative analysis will be done using the building simulation software Energy-10. It was found that when compared to single pane glass, double pane glass had a decrease of 7.21% in energy cost and electrochromic glass had a decrease of 9.81%. For the used building model, this meant a return investment in 30 and a half years. While electrochromic glass is a new clean method of energy usage reduction, it currently cannot return the consumers initial investment within a desirable time span.
    • Biomimicry: ENR 2

      Luliano, Joey; Aljuaid, Hannah; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Luliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2016-05-09)
      The idea of using nature, as a design model in building construction is not a new one; this innovative technique is known as biomimicry in architecture. This study focuses on biomimicry and its application in three buildings; The University of Arizona’s new Environmental and Natural Resource Phase 2 (ENR2) building; Architect Mick Pearce’s Eastgate Centre in Harare Zimbabwe; and Council House 2 (CH2) in Melbourne Australia. The research in this paper is centered around the ENR2 building, it examines the extent to which biomimcry is applied in terms of aesthetics and performance, by comparing it to the Eastgate Centre and CH2 buildings.