• Documenting Deforestation at Sidd al-Ahmar, Petra Region, Jordan

      Addison, Erin Heather; Livingston, Margaret; Kim, Mintai; Blazquez, Oscar; Hasanat, Majed (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study documented the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sidd al-Ahmar, within the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2006. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, and a decline of 4.23% between 2003-2006. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region.
    • A Study of Impact of Urbanization on Ephemeral Streams in Headwater Watersheds in Eastern Pima County, AZ.

      Kumazawa, Naoto.; Kim, Mintai; Livingston, Margaret; Lopes, Vicente; Nichols, Mary H. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      In this study, the impact of urbanization on ephemeral streams in arid environments was assessed by comparing eight small headwater watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in Tucson, Arizona. Chronological change in urbanization, stream network, and downstream channel width were observed, employing GIS, orthophotos over thirty years, and field measurements. A decrease in drainage density caused by urbanization and a decrease in channel width were found in many study sites. The relationship between the chronological change in downstream channel width and the urbanization pattern in the watersheds was assessed using an index named Stream Based Urbanization Index that indicates spatial distribution of urbanization in watersheds in relation to streams. Based on the comparison of seven Index factors, a lower rate of decrease in channel width was observed in the watersheds with a higher urbanization, especially with a higher concentration of urbanization near streams among the general trend of channel narrowing.