• ABSOLUTE STREET, a new type of streetscape for future high-density urbanism

      Livingston, Margaret; An, Tai (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      During the past decades, conflicts between the natural ecosystems and the need for urban development has led to a loss of connection to green spaces in urban cores. The Park Avenue in New York represents a highly-developed central business district with limited connections to green space. Currently the pedestrian space in Park Avenue exists as only a 16-foot-wide sidewalk. With limited areas for green space, people generally move from one destination to another with a highly-straightforward purpose. The median in this area could represent a space associated with activities that would capture interest for those moving through the space. Urbanism often drives the downtown area into an antipedestrian place where structures and automobiles occupy 90% of the surface. People are active “in the cracks” of those components, where population and parking problems are often not addressed. This project focused on a modular design on Park Avenue to study different possibilities that attempt to highlight how green space and inhabitants coexist with the development of the city. Additionally, it presents a solution to replace a simple function area with one that is more multi-functional.
    • Art for Plants’ Sake: Encouraging Arid Plant Palettes Through Installation Art

      Livingston, Margaret; Lutheran, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of Tucson is currently experiencing growing pains as urban revitalization converts empty lots throughout Downtown Tucson into housing and retail. The increase in density results in a city with more pedestrian amenities, however it also reduces the amount of available urban green space. As the space for green amenities contract, the remaining landscape is converted into a commercially available plant palette, however this development provides no reference to Tucson’s environmental context. Tucson is located within the Sonoran Desert, a semi-arid region that receives 12” of annual rainfall. Limited water availability combined with extreme heat has created a unique ecosystem of diverse plant and animal life adapted to difficult conditions. The urban environment creates additional environmental constraints such as degraded soils, increased disturbance, and reduced light, which lead many urban projects to select plant material solely based on urban constraints. As urban development brings more residents into the urban core, the demand for urban parks will continue to increase. Small urban parks are a valuable refuge for residents and wildlife alike, providing relief from the urban environment. Urban parks provide important social spaces allowing the community to gather and landscape elements that reflect the community to strengthen its identity. Public art enhances the urban environment by illustrating the genus loci that bonds residents to the site and their community while engaging new users. To reflect the unique context of the Sonoran Desert, Tucson’s urban parks must educate the public about the benefits of working in concert with Tucson’s natural environment. A series of art installations will highlight the unique methods plants of the Sonoran Desert use to survive harsh desert conditions. Installation art will promote understanding of arid-adapted plants while accompanying planting displays will acclimatize the public to the aesthetics of desert landscapes. As the public becomes aware of the benefits of climate-appropriate plants they will demand that these communities are integrated into the urban landscape matrix to benefit the city and environment alike. Desert-adapted plants provide native habitat, and give residents greater connection to their city and highlighting the unique context of Tucson’s surroundings.
    • Assessing Ecological Design Principles as They Relate to Sustainability in Neighborhoods of Tucson, Arizona.

      Bass, Beverly J.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Howard R.; Yoklic, Martin R. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Within urban areas, ecological design practices, as they relate to sustainability, are often employed to balance the needs of human and natural ecosystems. Older communities typically incorporated sustainable practices such as tightly clustered, multiuse development patterns, water harvesting and the use of vegetation to shade structures because technologies to overcome climate and travel limitations did not exist when they were built. During the twentieth century, technology advancements and changes in development patterns have contributed to a decreased emphasis on these practices. This study assessed neighborhoods of various ages in Tucson, AZ to determine what trends towards or away from ecological design practices exist in the area. Results of this study indicate that newer neighborhoods in Tucson exhibited fewer indicators of ecological design than did older neighborhoods, suggesting that ecological concerns may have played a diminishing role in the design of Tucson neighborhoods over time.
    • ASTORIA URBAN WATERFRONT PARK: RE-IMAGINING EXISTING ABANDONED PLAYGROUNDS IN QUEENS, NEW YORK CITY

      Livingston, Margaret; Nguyen, Truc (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of New York is the most populated city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With the population increasing every day, lands become very precious. Buildings keep growing upward to create more living and working spaces for New Yorker. With the gift of nature, water, and land, a waterfront park has become one of the attractions for New Yorkers and tourists during the daytime. However, the city has been facing an issue of sea level rise over many years. Many studies show that sea level is rising at an accelerated rate, especially along the U.S. east coast. Because of this reason, New York City officials have required designers to consider this issue in their future designs. This study documented the design process of a Master Plan for the Astoria Urban Waterfront Park in Astoria neighborhood, Queens, New York City. The project outcomes minimized the effectiveness of sea level rise while providing an inhabitable space for the residents. Astoria Urban Waterfront Park is an opportunity to restore biodiversity, create habitat for wildlife, grant access to the water, and house outdoor activities. A review of relevant literature was conducted to develop a framework for the design approach. Case reviews of other urban and waterfront parks were conducted for project outcomes and programs. In-depth site analysis and inventory were captured the site conditions and contextual surrounding. Outcomes focus on two public open spaces connected by a waterfront corridor.
    • BIODIVERSITY & INCLUSION: Leveraging community connections into shared stewardship and increased conservation capacity at Tumamoc Hill and beyond

      Livingston, Margaret; Casebeer, Nichole (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The question is not if, but ever increasingly, how and where do urban areas and conservation intersect, and further how urban regions will shape the future of the planet’s biodiversity. As reported by the IUCN, in many parts of the world they [Urban Protected Areas] are the only places not completely dominated by human influence, and the only hope for the survival of many of the world’s plant and animal species, including humans themselves. The primary goal of protected areas is conservation, and protecting the region’s natural and cultural diversity, however traditional conservation is often focused on controlling human disturbance through restrictive measures - extremely limiting and/or eliminating human access and influence to sensitive areas. Increasingly, it is being recognized that urban areas require unique conservation approaches which acknowledge the extent to which human and natural systems are interconnected, for better and for worse. Rather than focusing on the worst and eliminating these connections, more contemporary approaches focus on embracing and celebrating this contact, and building community connections to sensitive natural areas through which urban residents can positively engage with the natural environment and play a more active role in conservation. This project focuses on Tumamoc Hill, and its need to think beyond Tumamoc’s traditional “island” boundaries and a preserve & protect approach to conservation and research. It explores how UPAs are critical spaces for cultivating and disseminating ecological knowledge and strategies through which human and natural communities - which have co-evolved for 1,000’s of years - can potentially co-exist in supportive and even mutually beneficial ways. The design begins to envision how Tumamoc can cultivate community connections and creative conservation practices that will support and protect Tumamoc’s rich heritage and support conservation within its borders and even beyond.
    • Design-Build: A Cornerstone in the Education of Landscape Architecture

      Scott, Beth; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Ware, Charlie (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It is common for the education of architecture and landscape architecture to separate the technical (build) from the design (studio). Another line of thought is that in a well-rounded education in architecture and landscape architecture, couples design with the act of construction. This allows for a healthy balance from conceptualization to construction, which in turn, may foster stronger, integrated design skills. Familiarization with the construction process from materials and construction methods to budgeting and project management offers increased experience and understanding and can foster confidence and assurance crucial to decision making throughout academic and professional careers. This process can also lead to innovation and expansion of theory in the field due to the physical implementation and testing of ideas and concepts. As a growing number of architectural graduates are beginning their career and thriving in the design-build sector, this model of education is to evolve as a cornerstone in the curriculum of an architecture or landscape architecture program. This thesis explores the history, theory, and implementation of design-build education in the field of architecture and landscape architecture. Furthermore, an analysis is to be conducted on present day curriculum standards and previously conducted student and post-graduate surveys, as well as student and professional interviews. Based on research and reflections, a curriculum for a design-build studio within a school of landscape architecture is developed.
    • Documenting Deforestation at Sidd al-Ahmar, Petra Region, Jordan

      Addison, Erin Heather; Livingston, Margaret; Kim, Mintai; Blazquez, Oscar; Hasanat, Majed (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study documented the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sidd al-Ahmar, within the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2006. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, and a decline of 4.23% between 2003-2006. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region.
    • Dog Park Design: A Successful Southwest Dog Park

      Melnick, James Harrison; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron; Blazquez, Oscar (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Dog parks are becoming increasingly popular in urban areas where little space is available for interactions with dogs off-leash. Dog parks should help the well-being of the owners and ensure a sense of security for themselves and their canines. However, a poorly designed dog park or dog-friendly park can be difficult to deal with and can even increase the risk of incident among dogs. This research asks how can a dog park, or dog friendly park increase the interactions between owners and maintain a positive design aesthetic while providing a functional outdoor space.
    • Envisioning Oakland: The Ballpark District

      Blazquez, Oscar; Quach, Kevin; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The Oakland Athletics Baseball team has been lobbying for years to move to San Jose, a wealthier city than the current one they are in. The current ballpark of the Athletics, Oakland Coliseum, opened in September 18, 1966 and has housed the Athletics ever since 1968. With many teams in Major League Baseball relocating to newer sports facilities, the Athletics would like to do the same. One possible site for the Athletics’ new sports facility is in Downtown Oakland. With the city in a state of recovery, the Athletics could potentially play a hand in the revitalization of the downtown, stimulating new growth within the city. This project intends to use the ballpark to potentially aid and accelerate growth in Downtown Oakland while strengthening Oakland’s economy. This is done by gathering research information of selected literature and review the information to inform the design. Case studies of successful ballparks and their designs follow the literature review to support the design decisions. The design process includes a site inventory and analysis, conceptual diagrams, and a master plan. The results: A newly established ballpark district that includes a Market Street redevelopment, reworked public transportation, and the expansion of the San Francisco Bay Trail among other developments.
    • Evaluating Recreational Access on Ranching Lands in Southeastern Arizona

      Penati, Elizabeth S.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Randy; Anderson, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2005)
    • Factors associated with the development and implementation of master plans for botanical gardens

      Livingston, Margaret; Mielcarek, Laura Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The role of master plans at botanical gardens was studied for the purpose of identifying particular characteristics in successful master plan implementation. Twenty existing master plans were analyzed to provide background information about typical content, format, and professionals involved with development of master plans. In addition, fifty surveys were conducted with Directors of botanical gardens and arboreta. Twenty questions were posed to the Directors to define the extent of master plan implementation (i.e. use) at the garden and to identify the factors that affect implementation. Log-likelihood ratio tests (G tests) were performed to evaluate the data. Eighty-eight percent of the institutions surveyed reported that they implement a master plan at the garden. Significant relationships were observed between use of the master plan and the following factors: hiring a landscape architecture firm; involvement of staff, Boards of Directors, and the community; and inclusion of key sections, graphics, and the institution's mission statement. Based on these results, guidelines for master plan development and implementation are presented.
    • Guidelines for the Design and Development of Golf Courses Adjacent to Riparian Habitat in Semi-Arid Desert Landscapes

      Dietz, Robert Joseph.; Livingston, Margaret; Havens, William H.; Gimblett, H. Randal (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      With the growth of golf has come polarity. Environmentalists have targeted this growth as a misuse of precious land resources, fostering environmental fragmentation. The golf industry has countered by promoting the local implementation of strict environmental guidelines designed to minimize golf's impact on natural resources. Attempts to secure a compromise between developers and environmentalists in Pima County, Arizona have been moderately successful. There, existing environmental golf development guidelines are broad and insufficient to protect a declining riparian habitat. The purpose of this study is to offer improved guidelines for the future development of golf courses in the southwestern United States near sensitive riparian habitat. A comparative analysis of two local case studies provides the key to the development of new guidelines for golf courses near riparian areas in desert landscapes. Guidelines proposed within this study offer planning, design, construction, and maintenance direction related to the development of regional golf courses.
    • The Hashemite University Campus Landscape Master Plan: Zarqa, Jordan

      Alrayyan, Kawthar; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron; Blazquez, Oscar A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As important spaces of innovation and learning, the quality of university campuses directly affects their users. Surrounding communities are also significantly impacted by these large economic engines. In Jordan, almost one third of the population is enrolled in an educational facility. Insufficient educational facilities and increasing number of students led to the establishment of the Hashemite University (HU) in the city of Zarqa, a neighboring community of Amman, in 2000. As is the case in many universities in the kingdom of Jordan, the landscape of the campus appears neglected, treated as leftover space rather than needed functional spaces. The campus lacks a sense of place; a collegial and attractive place that creates memories. This research examines campus landscape design of Jordanian universities, with emphasis on HU. This research also assesses international trends in campus design, studying the notion of applying international standards to this Arab campus. The goal of this work is to redesign the HU campus, uncovering its unique character and improving the sense of place, purpose, and quality. Specifically, the design reconnects the university with the surrounding community and provides the area with social, psychological, and economic benefits.
    • Integrating Biophilic Principles and Therapeutic Design Elements in Outdoor Spaces for Children at Tucson Medical Center

      Davidson, Deryn; Livingston, Margaret; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As concern for the health and wellbeing of children grows in a society geared toward a more sedentary lifestyle, many doctors and therapists are pointing to the importance of access to, and time spent interacting with the natural world. The idea of using the restorative properties of nature in healing has been around since ancient times. There is currently a renaissance in the health care industry looking at the importance of incorporating gardens into the design of health care facilities once again. This project proposes to explore the importance for children in health care facilities to have access to the natural world while using the biophilia hypothesis as a framework for design. Furthermore, the benefits of outdoor areas for the families (particularly siblings) of child patients and the staff of the health care facilities was explored. Through the use of literature and case reviews, data was collected and synthesized to determine the elements best used to strengthen the designs for children’s therapeutic environments. Outcomes include three models of therapeutic environments including focus areas for the Tucson Medical Center campus in Tucson, Arizona.
    • IRON HORSE PARK RENOVATION: Preserving Iron Horse Park & Arroyo Chico as a critical social open space in an urban context

      Livingston, Margaret; Sanabria, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cities are full of underutilized or neglected spaces with the potential to be re-purposed into a land use that can provide more valuable open space to urban dwellers. This action is sometimes referred to as “Infrastructure for All” Places such as brown-fields, parking lots, alleys, isolated underpasses and city washes are just some of them. Like many cities in United States, the city of Tucson is becoming more and more dense with a tendency to grow vertically, meaning that the common ground is shared; streets, sidewalks, plazas, parks, to name a few. Public spaces such as parks, give people the opportunity to interact every day, “the more they interact with each other, the more they accept each other. Encouraging people of different generations, race, and income levels to interact and share is a positive experience. Through this experience they learn that they can peacefully coexist with people who are different from themselves”. The purpose of this master's report will be to promote social interaction through the enhancement and reactivation of a city park, that has been neglected or forgotten and that may be threatened by new development and densification. “Densification is happening in Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Boston— in most cities, actually. Even sprawled-out cities like Austin, Texas, are densifying, with tall residential towers in downtown” To preserve an existing urban park by encouraging human interaction brings many benefits to the city in terms of revitalization of places, encouraging people to walk through and connect with their community, and it can also help to build the local economy.
    • A Landscape of Memories: A Master Plan design for the Crawford Town Hall

      Radcliffe-Meyers, Lori; Scott, Elizabeth; Livingston, Margaret; Walthier, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As we continue to lose valuable landscapes to the pressures of growth and development, we need to keep in mind the history that some of these landscapes hold. They help tell the stories of our past and hold a special place in the hearts and minds of many. Historic buildings are typically recognized for their value and history that they tell and are often restored, helping to preserve a part of a community’s past. Yet the landscapes that helped shape the community and give meaning to the place are often overlooked. Looking at these landscapes, and putting as high of a value on the landscape as the buildings that are set upon them, is important and continues to be a topic that has come to the forefront.
    • Linking Children and Nature through Design: Integrating nature education for children of the Texas Panhandle into Palo Duro Canyon

      Booth, Amy; Johnson, Lauri MacMillan; Livingston, Margaret; Scott, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It has been suggested that the natural world establishes one of the most significant contexts children encounter during their most critical years of development. When children are allowed to interact with nature, they are able to make essential connections between humans, animals, natural systems, and gain a better understanding of the world at large. Unfortunately, within the span of a few decades, more and more children are losing touch with the natural world; the way they comprehend and interact with the outdoors is radically changing. To battle the current indoor trends, outdoor learning environments are springing up all over the country. This project serves to further examine outdoor educational facilities and to tailor a modified outdoor nature center prototype into the base of Palo Duro Canyon State Park in the Texas Panhandle. A final master plan will examine ways to implement various educational strategies for children while respecting the existing canyon ecosystem and ingraining a sense of stewardship into the nature center’s young visitors.
    • Malls of Memory: DEATH AND REBIRTH IN A SUBURBAN LANDSCAPE

      Livingston, Margaret; White, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In today’s suburban landscape, the shopping center has become a significant destination for many. Vastly sized, it has become a cultural landmark within many suburban and urban neighborhoods. Not only a space for ‘purchasing’, the suburban shopping center has become a place to shop, a place to eat, a place to meet, a place to exercise – a social space. However, with the development and dominance of big box retail stores and online shopping on the rise, suburban shopping malls as we currently know them, are slowly disappearing. Suburban malls, which were once successful in serving their suburban communities, are on the decline. These malls are suffering financially as stores close and the community no longer has reason to attend these dying monoliths – it is with this catalyst that the mall eventually has no choice but to close. With little additional places for social engagement in a suburban community, the mall has become a contradictory example of what it was once intended to do. A place for social and civic engagement, as well as an economic triumph has now become an eye sore – a burden on the community it was once designed to serve. Citizens are forced to drive elsewhere – arguably to a regional mall, or a big box power center. What if a declining mall could be repurposed or redefined to enhance the community it stands within by reimagining the shopping mall? Are there possibilities for a reimagined shopping center – possibilities that would resist the single minded consumerist approach and instill a sense of place within the community it stands? This master’s report is aimed at determining a new typology for a failing approach to consumerism, architecture and landscape architecture – an approach that focuses on social engagement and meaningful connections with the surrounding community. There have been a number of advancements and changes within consumerism in the Western World - a cycling of architectural styles, technological innovation and social trends. By focusing on the ‘next shift’ in successful urban planning, this report opens up a new possibility of both consumerism and social engagement acting harmoniously. Can these ‘dead malls’ help define a ‘sense of place’ within the community they were originally part of? Rather than discarding (literally tearing down) what once was a flourishing space of both consumerism and social engagement, can they be reimagined to enhance the community beyond a reductive view of pure consumerism, and become a new landmark that will have the potential to enhance and engage the community, as well as contribute to the economic success of a city?
    • Metamorphosis: A master planned community renovation- from struggling golf course to vibrant desert community

      VanDenBerg, Kelly A.; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; Stoltz, Ron (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As the popularity of golf grew in the 1990’s and real estate along golf courses brought in high property values, the building of golf courses in the Southwest boomed. However, supply of golf courses outgrew the demand (Downey, 2011). The National Golf Foundation predicts that 500-1,000 golf courses nationwide will close within the next 5 years (Schmidt, 2010). Cities and developers are facing a new problem: What to do with these defunct golf courses? These troubled golf courses provide opportunities for redesigning communities in order to make them more sustainable and resilient while preserving and enhancing much needed open space in urban areas. This project explores the redesign of a struggling golf course community in order to accommodate a larger variety of users. The design also rehabilitates the system of urban washes on site to functional ephemeral riparian areas that support wildlife habitat and provide amenities. Much of the disturbed areas covered with turf will be revegetated to resemble a more desert-like, native ecosystem. Furthermore, the design incorporates green infrastructure strategies to reduce and reuse water within the community and enhance the important riparian area along Tanque Verde wash. Methods for investigation included case reviews of existing associated projects. The design provides a conceptual framework for which this golf course or similar golf course repurposing projects may look in reference for viable ideas.
    • Mission Revival: Reimagining The San Xavier Mission Del Bac’s Relationship With the Land and its Community

      Livingston, Margaret; Bonnet, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Located in the Sonoran Desert ten miles southwest of Tucson, Arizona is Mission San Xavier Del Bac, a Franciscan mission and pilgrimage site that hosts hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. Founded by Spanish missionary Father Eusebio Kino in the late 17th century, the Mission has a storied history of intercultural trade and working relationships between the Native Tohono O’odham people and Spanish settlers. In the O’odham language, the mission is called “where the water runs in” in reference to the nearby Santa Cruz River. Historically, it ran year-round and was the catalyst for agricultural development in the area, but due to repeated human intervention is now primarily a dry bed. Today, the mission is an active parish that has achieved National Historic Landmark status and National Register designation. All of these factors culminate in a historic preservation project with intricate contextual layers that must be balanced and sensitively considered, which leads to critical questions throughout the process: What was the landscape like before and after various stages of human impact? Are there historic features that can be restored and preserved? If so, should they be? Ultimately, this project seeks to answer these questions through the lens of responsive site design both at the Mission and the surrounding Reservation landscape. The story of this land is a significant one, and this project seeks to accomplish how best to share it.