• Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.
    • DEPOT PARK Reviving a Layered Landscape

      Marenfeld, Jonathan (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      As Tucson grows and its downtown is revitalized open spaces are quickly disappearing. The lack of open space downtown is partially due to the temporary closure of Viente de Agosto Park, the pending closure Jácome Plaza near the Main Library, and numerous development opportunities. Cities of all sizes seem to have a park that hosts events big and small and gives its residents a taste of nature in an urban environment. Many studies have shown that urban parks provide city residents social and psychological benefits while also having ecological and environmental services (Chiesura, p. 129). The goal of this project is to create an urban park for downtown Tucson that is capable of hosting events, festivals, or just lunch with a friend. The park will serve as a major stop along various established and planned routes. It will also be designed in a way that conserves water while using solar and wind technologies to reduce the need for already strained and increasingly expensive resources. To aid in the concepts and design GIS data, case reviews, and local regulations and ordinances will be explored.
    • Design variables and the success of outdoor neighborhood recreational facilities

      Havens, William H.; Chapman, Gary Allen, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Today, park use is at an all-time high with the number of city parks increasing at a growing rate each year. Designing a successful outdoor neighborhood recreational facility insures that the surrounding population has an enjoyable, safe, and lasting space to recreate. This study properly illustrates the process in designing a successful neighborhood park. A demographic analysis, conducted in Southern California's Coachella Valley, identified three neighborhood parks as ideal study sites. Likewise, the review of existing literature, site observations, and the analysis of a carefully designed survey developed the appropriate methodology in meeting the intent of this study. As author, I wish to stress the importance of process. If the designer of a neighborhood facility is to meet the recreational goals of any community, he or she must first take action in understanding the appropriate process. Once this understanding is achieved, effective design guidelines may then be developed.
    • Design-Build: A Cornerstone in the Education of Landscape Architecture

      Scott, Beth; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Ware, Charlie (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It is common for the education of architecture and landscape architecture to separate the technical (build) from the design (studio). Another line of thought is that in a well-rounded education in architecture and landscape architecture, couples design with the act of construction. This allows for a healthy balance from conceptualization to construction, which in turn, may foster stronger, integrated design skills. Familiarization with the construction process from materials and construction methods to budgeting and project management offers increased experience and understanding and can foster confidence and assurance crucial to decision making throughout academic and professional careers. This process can also lead to innovation and expansion of theory in the field due to the physical implementation and testing of ideas and concepts. As a growing number of architectural graduates are beginning their career and thriving in the design-build sector, this model of education is to evolve as a cornerstone in the curriculum of an architecture or landscape architecture program. This thesis explores the history, theory, and implementation of design-build education in the field of architecture and landscape architecture. Furthermore, an analysis is to be conducted on present day curriculum standards and previously conducted student and post-graduate surveys, as well as student and professional interviews. Based on research and reflections, a curriculum for a design-build studio within a school of landscape architecture is developed.
    • The development of travel guide specifications to increase the awareness of landscape architecture and natural resource management

      Havens, William H.; Davis, Sarah Lee, 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The problem addressed is the public's lack of awareness of the contributions of landscape architects and other natural resource professionals to the practices of land stewardship. One solution is a travel guide to be developed using marketing and interpretive principles. The research question is: what should be the content of the travel guide such that it would increase public awareness about landscape architecture and related natural resource professions and their role in land stewardship? The scope included research for planning the guide: it excluded collection of specific project information. A questionnaire was administered to landscape architects at two professional meetings. The major findings include which topics best explain the profession, and the types of projects that should be selected. These findings are valuable to natural resource professional societies and to publishing industry marketers, and for use in pursuing grant funding to continue the guide's development.
    • Documenting Deforestation at Sidd al-Ahmar, Petra Region, Jordan

      Addison, Erin Heather; Livingston, Margaret; Kim, Mintai; Blazquez, Oscar; Hasanat, Majed (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study documented the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sidd al-Ahmar, within the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2006. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, and a decline of 4.23% between 2003-2006. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region.
    • Dog Park Design: A Successful Southwest Dog Park

      Melnick, James Harrison; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron; Blazquez, Oscar (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Dog parks are becoming increasingly popular in urban areas where little space is available for interactions with dogs off-leash. Dog parks should help the well-being of the owners and ensure a sense of security for themselves and their canines. However, a poorly designed dog park or dog-friendly park can be difficult to deal with and can even increase the risk of incident among dogs. This research asks how can a dog park, or dog friendly park increase the interactions between owners and maintain a positive design aesthetic while providing a functional outdoor space.
    • THE EFFECTS OF PROPORTION AND VEGETATIVE DENSITY ON THE VISUAL QUALITY OF URBAN OPEN SPACE

      Trauth, Patricia Mary, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
    • El Rio Preserve riparian rehabilitation & community recreation

      Stoicof, Alexandra (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The Sonoran Desert is a unique biodiverse landscape of approximately 100,000 square miles in Southwestern United States. It is characterized by seasonal monsoon rains in both the summer and winter that sustain some 2,000 different plant species, making it a comparatively lush desert. Because of the Sonoran Desert’s geographic location and seasonal precipitation patterns, a variety of biomes can be found in the region, including tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, grassland, chaparral, desert, thornscrub, and tropical forest (Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 2017). Within these biomes are corridors of riparian communities, which are areas of watercourses that create unique habitats. In the Southwest, many of these riparian watercourses are currently ephemeral and only fl ow temporarily throughout the year. These xeroriparian habitats (dry riparian) are largely and increasingly ephemeral because of human disturbances. Watercourses that once were perennial, such as the Santa Cruz River, now flow primarily only during the monsoon rains. Riparian communities are critical components in the network of biomes and habitats in the Sonoran Desert. They provide corridors for the movements of plants and animals, and sustain unique species in the desert that require more water. These communities are also beautiful, lush landscapes that are often enjoyed by humans for their oasis-like qualities; trails, camping and picnicking spots, and scenic points-of-view are often found along watercourses. The El Rio Preserve in Marana, Arizona is such a riparian community tucked along the banks of the Santa Cruz River. It is part of a chain of other regionally-significant habitats, and presents opportunities for both habitat and human recreation. Many species of plants and animals have found refuge at El Rio, including invasive species. Its origins as a former borrow pit, however, make it a disturbed xeroriparian landscape that could benefit from rehabilitation strategies. The following Master’s Report presents a process and design for El Rio. A majority of the work was done in collaboration with the Town of Marana. Public participation was a large component of the project, which informed many design decisions. A comprehensive literature and case review, and ongoing site assessments also contributed to the final design and rehabilitation strategies.
    • The Environmental Aesthetic Appreciation of Cultural Landscapes

      Gorski, Andrew David; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In recent decades the canon of environmental aesthetics has expanded beyond its primary concern of understanding what is beautiful in the fine arts to the appreciation of natural and cultural landscapes. Corresponding with society's growing interest in conservation, environmental aesthetics has emerged as relevant to many conservation discussions. The preservation and interpretation of cultural landscapes is complicated by resources that are in a constant state of change. Traditional cultural landscape preservation practices have had mixed results. A focus on interpretation rather than preservation is generally considered a strategy for improving cultural landscape practices. Applying theories developed in the field of environmental aesthetics to cultural landscapes may lead to principles helpful to their preservation and interpretation. In this study, an environmental aesthetic framework is developed and applied to the Canoa Ranch, a historic property south of Tucson, Arizona, to evaluate the potential of using environmental aesthetics in appreciation of cultural landscapes.
    • Envisioning Oakland: The Ballpark District

      Blazquez, Oscar; Quach, Kevin; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The Oakland Athletics Baseball team has been lobbying for years to move to San Jose, a wealthier city than the current one they are in. The current ballpark of the Athletics, Oakland Coliseum, opened in September 18, 1966 and has housed the Athletics ever since 1968. With many teams in Major League Baseball relocating to newer sports facilities, the Athletics would like to do the same. One possible site for the Athletics’ new sports facility is in Downtown Oakland. With the city in a state of recovery, the Athletics could potentially play a hand in the revitalization of the downtown, stimulating new growth within the city. This project intends to use the ballpark to potentially aid and accelerate growth in Downtown Oakland while strengthening Oakland’s economy. This is done by gathering research information of selected literature and review the information to inform the design. Case studies of successful ballparks and their designs follow the literature review to support the design decisions. The design process includes a site inventory and analysis, conceptual diagrams, and a master plan. The results: A newly established ballpark district that includes a Market Street redevelopment, reworked public transportation, and the expansion of the San Francisco Bay Trail among other developments.
    • Evaluating Recreational Access on Ranching Lands in Southeastern Arizona

      Penati, Elizabeth S.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Randy; Anderson, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2005)
    • Evaluation of irrigation practices on the quality of turfgrass playfields in southwestern elementary schools

      Abel, Robert Harlan.; Havens, W. H.; Wilkin, D. C.; Mancino, C. F. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not sprinkler irrigation performance could be used as an indicator for turf quality and water conservation potential in southwestern elementary schools. Soil fertility, turfgrass visual quality and playing quality of seven elementary school playfields in Tucson, Arizona was assessed. Irrigation system performance was evaluated using the Water Resource Manager software. Maintenance regimes were evaluated for effectiveness in producing quality turf. Sprinkler distribution uniformity (D.U) was a function of effective turf management. Overuse put impossible demands on elementary school turf maintenance functions, the most critical of which was irrigation management. Good D.U. alone did not predict conservation potential nor did it indicate turf quality. While a qualified irrigation manager can use creative methods to conserve water even with a poorly designed system, conservation potential is lost when an unqualified manager is making irrigation decisions.
    • An examination of Post-Modernism in landscape architecture

      Havens, William B.; Flickinger, Mark John, 1956- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This thesis explores the meaning of Modernism and Post-Modernism in landscape architecture and asks if contemporary landscape architecture can be classified as Post-Modern. Art, architecture, and landscape architecture were examined during the Industrial and Post-Industrial Eras to see if there is a correlation between each discipline's stylistic movements. Arguments both for and against the existence of a Post-Modern Movement in landscape architecture are presented. It is concluded that art and architecture are the current leaders in creating innovative, historically memorable landscape designs, and that there is need for further exploration, teaching, and debate about contemporary design history and theory.
    • The Factor of Time in the Analysis and Interpretation of Cultural Landscapes

      Erickson, Helen Breslich; Johnson, Lauri MacMillan; Jeffery, R. Brooks; O'Brien, William Patrick (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Cultural landscapes - artifacts that display the combined work of man and nature - exist in time. Therefore their evaluation, analysis and interpretation must take place within the context of conscious or unconscious understandings of time/space relationships. Landscape architecture professionals are often wary of the preservation of historic landscapes, sensing that a living landscape cannot be frozen in time. Heritage conservationists, working within structures initially designed to serve the built environment, sometimes question the validity of a dynamic landscape as a heritage resource. Divergent developmental histories led these two disciplines to internalize distinctive understandings of the meaning of time, giving rise in the process to conflicting yet potentially complementary conservation metrics. A discussion of these separate histories and resulting concepts of time will provide a starting point for an interdisciplinary discussion about a shared resource viewed through two contrasting temporal lenses. Case studies, examined in the context of frameworks devised by the National Park Service (NPS) for the analysis of cultural resources, suggest ways to expand the existing methodology to take conscious advantage of both of these views of time. The insights of landscape architecture offer a richer, more comprehensive view of an important heritage resource, while existing NPS structures offer a recognized means of validation and support for the conservation of cultural landscapes.
    • Factors associated with the development and implementation of master plans for botanical gardens

      Livingston, Margaret; Mielcarek, Laura Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The role of master plans at botanical gardens was studied for the purpose of identifying particular characteristics in successful master plan implementation. Twenty existing master plans were analyzed to provide background information about typical content, format, and professionals involved with development of master plans. In addition, fifty surveys were conducted with Directors of botanical gardens and arboreta. Twenty questions were posed to the Directors to define the extent of master plan implementation (i.e. use) at the garden and to identify the factors that affect implementation. Log-likelihood ratio tests (G tests) were performed to evaluate the data. Eighty-eight percent of the institutions surveyed reported that they implement a master plan at the garden. Significant relationships were observed between use of the master plan and the following factors: hiring a landscape architecture firm; involvement of staff, Boards of Directors, and the community; and inclusion of key sections, graphics, and the institution's mission statement. Based on these results, guidelines for master plan development and implementation are presented.
    • Fear in the landscape: Characteristics of the designed environment as they relate to the perceived and actual safety of women from assault and rape

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Huffman, Debra Kay, 1952- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Research has shown that women perceive, use, and experience space differently than men, in part, because of gender issues and fear of victimization for violent crimes. Recent research has focused on the built environment, violence against women, and the social context of a university. The research study described here investigated women's perception of and actual safety from assault and rape on The University of Arizona campus. Sites perceived as safe and unsafe were identified from responses of 100 women students and administrators. Police reports of 132 campus assaults of women were used to identify sites of past rapes and assaults. Two outdoor sites were assessed in a preliminary study of two environmental audit methods. Findings from this study indicated that respondents perceived the campus as being very safe during the day but unsafe at night. Sites of previous assaults on women overlapped little with the areas women associated with fear.
    • From Classic to Gothic: The interplay between the universals and the particulars in the European architectural history

      Matter, Fred S.; Nakhai, Farzad, 1947- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This thesis deals with the development of and the interaction between the ideals of classical universalism and the ideas of Gothic particularism. Part One traces the birth and the development of classical universalism; Part Two, medieval particularism. Part Three deals with the renaissance of the classical formulas, the adversary position the Renaissance held against medievalism and its consequences for the succeeding centuries. Part Four deals with the ideas of particularism making a come-back, leading to the formation of the Gothic Revival Movement. The Gothic Revival Movement and its adversary position against classical universalism is treated in Part Five. Part Six looks at the ninteenth century Revivalism and the birth of the new industrial era.
    • Guidelines for the Design and Development of Golf Courses Adjacent to Riparian Habitat in Semi-Arid Desert Landscapes

      Dietz, Robert Joseph.; Livingston, Margaret; Havens, William H.; Gimblett, H. Randal (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      With the growth of golf has come polarity. Environmentalists have targeted this growth as a misuse of precious land resources, fostering environmental fragmentation. The golf industry has countered by promoting the local implementation of strict environmental guidelines designed to minimize golf's impact on natural resources. Attempts to secure a compromise between developers and environmentalists in Pima County, Arizona have been moderately successful. There, existing environmental golf development guidelines are broad and insufficient to protect a declining riparian habitat. The purpose of this study is to offer improved guidelines for the future development of golf courses in the southwestern United States near sensitive riparian habitat. A comparative analysis of two local case studies provides the key to the development of new guidelines for golf courses near riparian areas in desert landscapes. Guidelines proposed within this study offer planning, design, construction, and maintenance direction related to the development of regional golf courses.