• THE EFFECTS OF PROPORTION AND VEGETATIVE DENSITY ON THE VISUAL QUALITY OF URBAN OPEN SPACE

      Trauth, Patricia Mary, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
    • El Rio Preserve riparian rehabilitation & community recreation

      Stoicof, Alexandra (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The Sonoran Desert is a unique biodiverse landscape of approximately 100,000 square miles in Southwestern United States. It is characterized by seasonal monsoon rains in both the summer and winter that sustain some 2,000 different plant species, making it a comparatively lush desert. Because of the Sonoran Desert’s geographic location and seasonal precipitation patterns, a variety of biomes can be found in the region, including tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, grassland, chaparral, desert, thornscrub, and tropical forest (Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 2017). Within these biomes are corridors of riparian communities, which are areas of watercourses that create unique habitats. In the Southwest, many of these riparian watercourses are currently ephemeral and only fl ow temporarily throughout the year. These xeroriparian habitats (dry riparian) are largely and increasingly ephemeral because of human disturbances. Watercourses that once were perennial, such as the Santa Cruz River, now flow primarily only during the monsoon rains. Riparian communities are critical components in the network of biomes and habitats in the Sonoran Desert. They provide corridors for the movements of plants and animals, and sustain unique species in the desert that require more water. These communities are also beautiful, lush landscapes that are often enjoyed by humans for their oasis-like qualities; trails, camping and picnicking spots, and scenic points-of-view are often found along watercourses. The El Rio Preserve in Marana, Arizona is such a riparian community tucked along the banks of the Santa Cruz River. It is part of a chain of other regionally-significant habitats, and presents opportunities for both habitat and human recreation. Many species of plants and animals have found refuge at El Rio, including invasive species. Its origins as a former borrow pit, however, make it a disturbed xeroriparian landscape that could benefit from rehabilitation strategies. The following Master’s Report presents a process and design for El Rio. A majority of the work was done in collaboration with the Town of Marana. Public participation was a large component of the project, which informed many design decisions. A comprehensive literature and case review, and ongoing site assessments also contributed to the final design and rehabilitation strategies.
    • The Environmental Aesthetic Appreciation of Cultural Landscapes

      Gorski, Andrew David; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In recent decades the canon of environmental aesthetics has expanded beyond its primary concern of understanding what is beautiful in the fine arts to the appreciation of natural and cultural landscapes. Corresponding with society's growing interest in conservation, environmental aesthetics has emerged as relevant to many conservation discussions. The preservation and interpretation of cultural landscapes is complicated by resources that are in a constant state of change. Traditional cultural landscape preservation practices have had mixed results. A focus on interpretation rather than preservation is generally considered a strategy for improving cultural landscape practices. Applying theories developed in the field of environmental aesthetics to cultural landscapes may lead to principles helpful to their preservation and interpretation. In this study, an environmental aesthetic framework is developed and applied to the Canoa Ranch, a historic property south of Tucson, Arizona, to evaluate the potential of using environmental aesthetics in appreciation of cultural landscapes.
    • Envisioning Oakland: The Ballpark District

      Blazquez, Oscar; Quach, Kevin; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The Oakland Athletics Baseball team has been lobbying for years to move to San Jose, a wealthier city than the current one they are in. The current ballpark of the Athletics, Oakland Coliseum, opened in September 18, 1966 and has housed the Athletics ever since 1968. With many teams in Major League Baseball relocating to newer sports facilities, the Athletics would like to do the same. One possible site for the Athletics’ new sports facility is in Downtown Oakland. With the city in a state of recovery, the Athletics could potentially play a hand in the revitalization of the downtown, stimulating new growth within the city. This project intends to use the ballpark to potentially aid and accelerate growth in Downtown Oakland while strengthening Oakland’s economy. This is done by gathering research information of selected literature and review the information to inform the design. Case studies of successful ballparks and their designs follow the literature review to support the design decisions. The design process includes a site inventory and analysis, conceptual diagrams, and a master plan. The results: A newly established ballpark district that includes a Market Street redevelopment, reworked public transportation, and the expansion of the San Francisco Bay Trail among other developments.
    • Evaluating Recreational Access on Ranching Lands in Southeastern Arizona

      Penati, Elizabeth S.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Randy; Anderson, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2005)
    • Evaluation of irrigation practices on the quality of turfgrass playfields in southwestern elementary schools

      Abel, Robert Harlan.; Havens, W. H.; Wilkin, D. C.; Mancino, C. F. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not sprinkler irrigation performance could be used as an indicator for turf quality and water conservation potential in southwestern elementary schools. Soil fertility, turfgrass visual quality and playing quality of seven elementary school playfields in Tucson, Arizona was assessed. Irrigation system performance was evaluated using the Water Resource Manager software. Maintenance regimes were evaluated for effectiveness in producing quality turf. Sprinkler distribution uniformity (D.U) was a function of effective turf management. Overuse put impossible demands on elementary school turf maintenance functions, the most critical of which was irrigation management. Good D.U. alone did not predict conservation potential nor did it indicate turf quality. While a qualified irrigation manager can use creative methods to conserve water even with a poorly designed system, conservation potential is lost when an unqualified manager is making irrigation decisions.
    • An examination of Post-Modernism in landscape architecture

      Havens, William B.; Flickinger, Mark John, 1956- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This thesis explores the meaning of Modernism and Post-Modernism in landscape architecture and asks if contemporary landscape architecture can be classified as Post-Modern. Art, architecture, and landscape architecture were examined during the Industrial and Post-Industrial Eras to see if there is a correlation between each discipline's stylistic movements. Arguments both for and against the existence of a Post-Modern Movement in landscape architecture are presented. It is concluded that art and architecture are the current leaders in creating innovative, historically memorable landscape designs, and that there is need for further exploration, teaching, and debate about contemporary design history and theory.
    • The Factor of Time in the Analysis and Interpretation of Cultural Landscapes

      Erickson, Helen Breslich; Johnson, Lauri MacMillan; Jeffery, R. Brooks; O'Brien, William Patrick (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Cultural landscapes - artifacts that display the combined work of man and nature - exist in time. Therefore their evaluation, analysis and interpretation must take place within the context of conscious or unconscious understandings of time/space relationships. Landscape architecture professionals are often wary of the preservation of historic landscapes, sensing that a living landscape cannot be frozen in time. Heritage conservationists, working within structures initially designed to serve the built environment, sometimes question the validity of a dynamic landscape as a heritage resource. Divergent developmental histories led these two disciplines to internalize distinctive understandings of the meaning of time, giving rise in the process to conflicting yet potentially complementary conservation metrics. A discussion of these separate histories and resulting concepts of time will provide a starting point for an interdisciplinary discussion about a shared resource viewed through two contrasting temporal lenses. Case studies, examined in the context of frameworks devised by the National Park Service (NPS) for the analysis of cultural resources, suggest ways to expand the existing methodology to take conscious advantage of both of these views of time. The insights of landscape architecture offer a richer, more comprehensive view of an important heritage resource, while existing NPS structures offer a recognized means of validation and support for the conservation of cultural landscapes.
    • Factors associated with the development and implementation of master plans for botanical gardens

      Livingston, Margaret; Mielcarek, Laura Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The role of master plans at botanical gardens was studied for the purpose of identifying particular characteristics in successful master plan implementation. Twenty existing master plans were analyzed to provide background information about typical content, format, and professionals involved with development of master plans. In addition, fifty surveys were conducted with Directors of botanical gardens and arboreta. Twenty questions were posed to the Directors to define the extent of master plan implementation (i.e. use) at the garden and to identify the factors that affect implementation. Log-likelihood ratio tests (G tests) were performed to evaluate the data. Eighty-eight percent of the institutions surveyed reported that they implement a master plan at the garden. Significant relationships were observed between use of the master plan and the following factors: hiring a landscape architecture firm; involvement of staff, Boards of Directors, and the community; and inclusion of key sections, graphics, and the institution's mission statement. Based on these results, guidelines for master plan development and implementation are presented.
    • Fear in the landscape: Characteristics of the designed environment as they relate to the perceived and actual safety of women from assault and rape

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Huffman, Debra Kay, 1952- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Research has shown that women perceive, use, and experience space differently than men, in part, because of gender issues and fear of victimization for violent crimes. Recent research has focused on the built environment, violence against women, and the social context of a university. The research study described here investigated women's perception of and actual safety from assault and rape on The University of Arizona campus. Sites perceived as safe and unsafe were identified from responses of 100 women students and administrators. Police reports of 132 campus assaults of women were used to identify sites of past rapes and assaults. Two outdoor sites were assessed in a preliminary study of two environmental audit methods. Findings from this study indicated that respondents perceived the campus as being very safe during the day but unsafe at night. Sites of previous assaults on women overlapped little with the areas women associated with fear.
    • From Classic to Gothic: The interplay between the universals and the particulars in the European architectural history

      Matter, Fred S.; Nakhai, Farzad, 1947- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This thesis deals with the development of and the interaction between the ideals of classical universalism and the ideas of Gothic particularism. Part One traces the birth and the development of classical universalism; Part Two, medieval particularism. Part Three deals with the renaissance of the classical formulas, the adversary position the Renaissance held against medievalism and its consequences for the succeeding centuries. Part Four deals with the ideas of particularism making a come-back, leading to the formation of the Gothic Revival Movement. The Gothic Revival Movement and its adversary position against classical universalism is treated in Part Five. Part Six looks at the ninteenth century Revivalism and the birth of the new industrial era.
    • Guidelines for the Design and Development of Golf Courses Adjacent to Riparian Habitat in Semi-Arid Desert Landscapes

      Dietz, Robert Joseph.; Livingston, Margaret; Havens, William H.; Gimblett, H. Randal (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      With the growth of golf has come polarity. Environmentalists have targeted this growth as a misuse of precious land resources, fostering environmental fragmentation. The golf industry has countered by promoting the local implementation of strict environmental guidelines designed to minimize golf's impact on natural resources. Attempts to secure a compromise between developers and environmentalists in Pima County, Arizona have been moderately successful. There, existing environmental golf development guidelines are broad and insufficient to protect a declining riparian habitat. The purpose of this study is to offer improved guidelines for the future development of golf courses in the southwestern United States near sensitive riparian habitat. A comparative analysis of two local case studies provides the key to the development of new guidelines for golf courses near riparian areas in desert landscapes. Guidelines proposed within this study offer planning, design, construction, and maintenance direction related to the development of regional golf courses.
    • The Hashemite University Campus Landscape Master Plan: Zarqa, Jordan

      Alrayyan, Kawthar; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron; Blazquez, Oscar A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As important spaces of innovation and learning, the quality of university campuses directly affects their users. Surrounding communities are also significantly impacted by these large economic engines. In Jordan, almost one third of the population is enrolled in an educational facility. Insufficient educational facilities and increasing number of students led to the establishment of the Hashemite University (HU) in the city of Zarqa, a neighboring community of Amman, in 2000. As is the case in many universities in the kingdom of Jordan, the landscape of the campus appears neglected, treated as leftover space rather than needed functional spaces. The campus lacks a sense of place; a collegial and attractive place that creates memories. This research examines campus landscape design of Jordanian universities, with emphasis on HU. This research also assesses international trends in campus design, studying the notion of applying international standards to this Arab campus. The goal of this work is to redesign the HU campus, uncovering its unique character and improving the sense of place, purpose, and quality. Specifically, the design reconnects the university with the surrounding community and provides the area with social, psychological, and economic benefits.
    • Impacts of near park development on visitor's perception of Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

      Coppo, Joseph Lewis, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      As the population of the United States increases, pressures on Park boundaries are also increasing. The buffer zones around park units are disappearing due to external encroachment, causing adverse effects to park resources. It has always been assumed that there will be a negative effect on Park resources resulting from near park development, but the effects have not been documented. This research examines the effect that near park development has on the overall quality of visitors experience at Tuzigoot National Monument. Subjects showed a preference for natural settings by consistently rating non-built development alternatives higher than residential and commercial alternatives.
    • The importance of xeroriparian habitat to single family residents in unincorporated Pima County

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Novak, Karen Marie, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Riparian habitat, the narrow strip of vegetation associated with natural drainageways, is considered important because it provides many benefits. Benefits include wildlife habitat, flood control, recreational opportunities, ground water protection, and visual aesthetics. A survey of forty-five selected single family residents in unincorporated Pima County was conducted to explore the importance a general population places on riparian habitats, specifically xeroriparian habitats. Xeroriparian habitat is the vegetation that is associated with smaller ephemeral streams in the arid southwest. The results of the survey indicate that xeroriparian habitat is important to the general population. The survey questions included information on the respondents' use of riparian areas near their home, knowledge of riparian habitat benefits, concerns regarding riparian habitats near the respondent's house, impacts of the removal of xeroriparian habitat near the respondent's home on their attitude toward their home, and influence of xeroriparian habitat on a future selection of a home.
    • IMPROVING TOURISM AND RECREATION: POTENTIAL FOR ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN CIUDAD ACUNA, COAHUILA (MEXICO - USA BORDER CITY)

      Zube, Ervin H.; Abelar, Raul Refugio, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This thesis advocates development of a program to rehabilitate Braulio Fernandez Park and the commercial sector of Hidalgo Street in the border city of Ciudad Acuna, Coahuila, Mexico. Guidelines for the treatment and development of both new and existing elements within the study area were generated based upon the following: an analysis of the economic and physical needs of the community, and examination of the natural and urban environment, a study of existing landscape architectural amenities in various border cities, and research documenting attitudes and perceptions of the people within the study area as they relate to the issues presented herein. Revitalization through the administration of this program would increase tourism, promote recreation and would enable Braulio Fernandez Park and commercial street Hidalgo to serve as a more impressive and prosperous gateway to Ciudad Acuna and to Mexico.
    • Indeterminacy, the I Ching, and John Cage: A New Design Method for Landscape Architecture

      Morse, Barry Ray; Macmilllan Johnson, Lauri; Blazquez, Oscar; Ivey, Paul E. (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      The creative use of indeterminacy (i.e. "chance") is an often overlooked design opportunity despite the universality of chance in art, nature, science and life. How can "chance", a seemingly capricious phenomenon be made to work for someone? One controlled use of chance is through the Chinese I Ching "chance operations" method of composer and artist John Cage (1912-1992). This thesis addresses the questions of how one might approach using this method in landscape architectural design, what would be the outcome of such an indeterminate design and whether or not it could lead to a constructed landscape. In addition, this thesis will answer the question: what is the relationship between the I Ching, John Cage and the constructed landscape, anyway? The final product of this thesis will be a new redesign of an existing plaza using Cage's techniques and a comparative evaluation among the new indeterminate concept and two preexisting designs using the original plaza program objectives as a guide against which the three designs can be judged for effectiveness.
    • Integrating Biophilic Principles and Therapeutic Design Elements in Outdoor Spaces for Children at Tucson Medical Center

      Davidson, Deryn; Livingston, Margaret; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As concern for the health and wellbeing of children grows in a society geared toward a more sedentary lifestyle, many doctors and therapists are pointing to the importance of access to, and time spent interacting with the natural world. The idea of using the restorative properties of nature in healing has been around since ancient times. There is currently a renaissance in the health care industry looking at the importance of incorporating gardens into the design of health care facilities once again. This project proposes to explore the importance for children in health care facilities to have access to the natural world while using the biophilia hypothesis as a framework for design. Furthermore, the benefits of outdoor areas for the families (particularly siblings) of child patients and the staff of the health care facilities was explored. Through the use of literature and case reviews, data was collected and synthesized to determine the elements best used to strengthen the designs for children’s therapeutic environments. Outcomes include three models of therapeutic environments including focus areas for the Tucson Medical Center campus in Tucson, Arizona.
    • Integrating Pedestrian Needs and Bird Habitat in Trial Design Along Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, AZ

      Patton, Jennifer Louise (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Assessment of semi-natural landscapes in urban areas for habitat and human recreation has greater relevance as natural open space around cities disappears. Secondary watercourses can potentially serve as urban wildlife habitat and provide trail networks connecting to the urban mosaic and nearby natural areas. These areas also could extend bird watching into urban areas, an activity that is significantly increasing. This study focused on compatibility of bird habitat with a pedestrian greenway along a secondary watercourse in Tucson, AZ. Creating native bird habitat was emphasized due to the decreasing numbers of native species in Tucson’s urban core. The following question was addressed: What are the most significant criteria for creating native bird habitat and how can these be integrated with a pedestrian trail appropriate for secondary watercourses in Tucson? Guidelines integrating trail design and bird habitat were developed. These guidelines serve to guide future trail and habitat planning along undeveloped secondary watercourses in this region.