• Guidelines for the Design and Development of Golf Courses Adjacent to Riparian Habitat in Semi-Arid Desert Landscapes

      Dietz, Robert Joseph.; Livingston, Margaret; Havens, William H.; Gimblett, H. Randal (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      With the growth of golf has come polarity. Environmentalists have targeted this growth as a misuse of precious land resources, fostering environmental fragmentation. The golf industry has countered by promoting the local implementation of strict environmental guidelines designed to minimize golf's impact on natural resources. Attempts to secure a compromise between developers and environmentalists in Pima County, Arizona have been moderately successful. There, existing environmental golf development guidelines are broad and insufficient to protect a declining riparian habitat. The purpose of this study is to offer improved guidelines for the future development of golf courses in the southwestern United States near sensitive riparian habitat. A comparative analysis of two local case studies provides the key to the development of new guidelines for golf courses near riparian areas in desert landscapes. Guidelines proposed within this study offer planning, design, construction, and maintenance direction related to the development of regional golf courses.
    • The Hashemite University Campus Landscape Master Plan: Zarqa, Jordan

      Alrayyan, Kawthar; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron; Blazquez, Oscar A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As important spaces of innovation and learning, the quality of university campuses directly affects their users. Surrounding communities are also significantly impacted by these large economic engines. In Jordan, almost one third of the population is enrolled in an educational facility. Insufficient educational facilities and increasing number of students led to the establishment of the Hashemite University (HU) in the city of Zarqa, a neighboring community of Amman, in 2000. As is the case in many universities in the kingdom of Jordan, the landscape of the campus appears neglected, treated as leftover space rather than needed functional spaces. The campus lacks a sense of place; a collegial and attractive place that creates memories. This research examines campus landscape design of Jordanian universities, with emphasis on HU. This research also assesses international trends in campus design, studying the notion of applying international standards to this Arab campus. The goal of this work is to redesign the HU campus, uncovering its unique character and improving the sense of place, purpose, and quality. Specifically, the design reconnects the university with the surrounding community and provides the area with social, psychological, and economic benefits.
    • Impacts of near park development on visitor's perception of Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

      Coppo, Joseph Lewis, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      As the population of the United States increases, pressures on Park boundaries are also increasing. The buffer zones around park units are disappearing due to external encroachment, causing adverse effects to park resources. It has always been assumed that there will be a negative effect on Park resources resulting from near park development, but the effects have not been documented. This research examines the effect that near park development has on the overall quality of visitors experience at Tuzigoot National Monument. Subjects showed a preference for natural settings by consistently rating non-built development alternatives higher than residential and commercial alternatives.
    • The importance of xeroriparian habitat to single family residents in unincorporated Pima County

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Novak, Karen Marie, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Riparian habitat, the narrow strip of vegetation associated with natural drainageways, is considered important because it provides many benefits. Benefits include wildlife habitat, flood control, recreational opportunities, ground water protection, and visual aesthetics. A survey of forty-five selected single family residents in unincorporated Pima County was conducted to explore the importance a general population places on riparian habitats, specifically xeroriparian habitats. Xeroriparian habitat is the vegetation that is associated with smaller ephemeral streams in the arid southwest. The results of the survey indicate that xeroriparian habitat is important to the general population. The survey questions included information on the respondents' use of riparian areas near their home, knowledge of riparian habitat benefits, concerns regarding riparian habitats near the respondent's house, impacts of the removal of xeroriparian habitat near the respondent's home on their attitude toward their home, and influence of xeroriparian habitat on a future selection of a home.
    • IMPROVING TOURISM AND RECREATION: POTENTIAL FOR ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN CIUDAD ACUNA, COAHUILA (MEXICO - USA BORDER CITY)

      Zube, Ervin H.; Abelar, Raul Refugio, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This thesis advocates development of a program to rehabilitate Braulio Fernandez Park and the commercial sector of Hidalgo Street in the border city of Ciudad Acuna, Coahuila, Mexico. Guidelines for the treatment and development of both new and existing elements within the study area were generated based upon the following: an analysis of the economic and physical needs of the community, and examination of the natural and urban environment, a study of existing landscape architectural amenities in various border cities, and research documenting attitudes and perceptions of the people within the study area as they relate to the issues presented herein. Revitalization through the administration of this program would increase tourism, promote recreation and would enable Braulio Fernandez Park and commercial street Hidalgo to serve as a more impressive and prosperous gateway to Ciudad Acuna and to Mexico.
    • Indeterminacy, the I Ching, and John Cage: A New Design Method for Landscape Architecture

      Morse, Barry Ray; Macmilllan Johnson, Lauri; Blazquez, Oscar; Ivey, Paul E. (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      The creative use of indeterminacy (i.e. "chance") is an often overlooked design opportunity despite the universality of chance in art, nature, science and life. How can "chance", a seemingly capricious phenomenon be made to work for someone? One controlled use of chance is through the Chinese I Ching "chance operations" method of composer and artist John Cage (1912-1992). This thesis addresses the questions of how one might approach using this method in landscape architectural design, what would be the outcome of such an indeterminate design and whether or not it could lead to a constructed landscape. In addition, this thesis will answer the question: what is the relationship between the I Ching, John Cage and the constructed landscape, anyway? The final product of this thesis will be a new redesign of an existing plaza using Cage's techniques and a comparative evaluation among the new indeterminate concept and two preexisting designs using the original plaza program objectives as a guide against which the three designs can be judged for effectiveness.
    • Integrating Biophilic Principles and Therapeutic Design Elements in Outdoor Spaces for Children at Tucson Medical Center

      Davidson, Deryn; Livingston, Margaret; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; Stoltz, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As concern for the health and wellbeing of children grows in a society geared toward a more sedentary lifestyle, many doctors and therapists are pointing to the importance of access to, and time spent interacting with the natural world. The idea of using the restorative properties of nature in healing has been around since ancient times. There is currently a renaissance in the health care industry looking at the importance of incorporating gardens into the design of health care facilities once again. This project proposes to explore the importance for children in health care facilities to have access to the natural world while using the biophilia hypothesis as a framework for design. Furthermore, the benefits of outdoor areas for the families (particularly siblings) of child patients and the staff of the health care facilities was explored. Through the use of literature and case reviews, data was collected and synthesized to determine the elements best used to strengthen the designs for children’s therapeutic environments. Outcomes include three models of therapeutic environments including focus areas for the Tucson Medical Center campus in Tucson, Arizona.
    • Integrating Pedestrian Needs and Bird Habitat in Trial Design Along Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, AZ

      Patton, Jennifer Louise (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Assessment of semi-natural landscapes in urban areas for habitat and human recreation has greater relevance as natural open space around cities disappears. Secondary watercourses can potentially serve as urban wildlife habitat and provide trail networks connecting to the urban mosaic and nearby natural areas. These areas also could extend bird watching into urban areas, an activity that is significantly increasing. This study focused on compatibility of bird habitat with a pedestrian greenway along a secondary watercourse in Tucson, AZ. Creating native bird habitat was emphasized due to the decreasing numbers of native species in Tucson’s urban core. The following question was addressed: What are the most significant criteria for creating native bird habitat and how can these be integrated with a pedestrian trail appropriate for secondary watercourses in Tucson? Guidelines integrating trail design and bird habitat were developed. These guidelines serve to guide future trail and habitat planning along undeveloped secondary watercourses in this region.
    • INTERLACE: NANHU ECOLOGICAL PARK - New development of the city, ecological restoration, and reuse of abandoned man-made reservoirs

      Song, Zhiuyan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As urbanization has progressed in Lijin County that is located in Shandong, China, natural areas have gradually been replaced by concrete banks and decorative greenery plantings. The original wild wetland landscape’s degradation has influenced people living in this county who have lost their sense of belonging. Currently, there is an excellent opportunity to redevelop the Lijin’s new district: Southern District. The 75-hectare Lijin Reservoir built in 2002 will be considered for re-use and participation in an urban ecological restoration. A plan will redesign the deserted reservoir into a residential-friendly, ecological, new urban open space showing the unique wetland landscape of the Yellow River estuary and Lijin’s urban culture. At the same time, it will serve as an essential part of the entire urban water system, promoting public water circulation and improving water quality. Overall, this will promote the surrounding economic development and cultural construction.
    • Interpreting the cultural landscape of a pioneer cattle ranch in the arid southwest

      Zube, Ervin H.; Singer, Carla Ann, 1951- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The ideas for this thesis were conceived as a result of the author's work on a cooperative agreement between the National Park Service and the Landscape Architecture Program in the School of Renewable Natural Resources, wherein the changes that have occurred on the cultural landscapes of four prehistoric or historic sites were documented. Historic cultural landscapes, especially those associated with vernacular sites have been largely overlooked in interpretive efforts. Readings revealed that vernacular cultural landscapes may serve as a form of historic documentation. These landscapes may provide additional clues regarding the history of our country to visitors of historic sites if the information is interpreted in an interesting, sensitive, and factual manner. The Blankenship/Dos Lomitas Ranch, an early 20th century cattle ranch located within the boundaries of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, is a vernacular historic site with remnants of the associated landscape intact. This landscape may hold valuable information regarding a major westward migration of American cattle ranchers during the mid to latter 19th century that had a profound effect on the ecology and culture of the Sonoran desert in southern Arizona. As a result of readings, visits to historic sites, and interviews with professionals in the field of interpretation, recommendations are made to present the story of the vernacular landscape of this pioneer cattle ranch to visitors of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.
    • An Introduction to Geographic Information Systems for Practitioners: A Graphic Approach

      Trobia, Eugene S.; Havens, William H.; Havens, William H.; Deeter, Michael T.; Itami, Robert M. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
    • IRON HORSE PARK RENOVATION: Preserving Iron Horse Park & Arroyo Chico as a critical social open space in an urban context

      Livingston, Margaret; Sanabria, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cities are full of underutilized or neglected spaces with the potential to be re-purposed into a land use that can provide more valuable open space to urban dwellers. This action is sometimes referred to as “Infrastructure for All” Places such as brown-fields, parking lots, alleys, isolated underpasses and city washes are just some of them. Like many cities in United States, the city of Tucson is becoming more and more dense with a tendency to grow vertically, meaning that the common ground is shared; streets, sidewalks, plazas, parks, to name a few. Public spaces such as parks, give people the opportunity to interact every day, “the more they interact with each other, the more they accept each other. Encouraging people of different generations, race, and income levels to interact and share is a positive experience. Through this experience they learn that they can peacefully coexist with people who are different from themselves”. The purpose of this master's report will be to promote social interaction through the enhancement and reactivation of a city park, that has been neglected or forgotten and that may be threatened by new development and densification. “Densification is happening in Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Boston— in most cities, actually. Even sprawled-out cities like Austin, Texas, are densifying, with tall residential towers in downtown” To preserve an existing urban park by encouraging human interaction brings many benefits to the city in terms of revitalization of places, encouraging people to walk through and connect with their community, and it can also help to build the local economy.
    • A Landscape of Memories: A Master Plan design for the Crawford Town Hall

      Radcliffe-Meyers, Lori; Scott, Elizabeth; Livingston, Margaret; Walthier, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As we continue to lose valuable landscapes to the pressures of growth and development, we need to keep in mind the history that some of these landscapes hold. They help tell the stories of our past and hold a special place in the hearts and minds of many. Historic buildings are typically recognized for their value and history that they tell and are often restored, helping to preserve a part of a community’s past. Yet the landscapes that helped shape the community and give meaning to the place are often overlooked. Looking at these landscapes, and putting as high of a value on the landscape as the buildings that are set upon them, is important and continues to be a topic that has come to the forefront.
    • Las Palmas: An approach towards sustainable tourism development in Baja California Sur, Mexico

      Liggett, Aaron; Frederickson, Mark; Stoltz, Ronald; Scott, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As mass tourism is spreading throughout Latin America, haphazard growth is threatening the environment and local communities. In an effort to mitigate social and environmental impacts an alternative approach towards tourism development utilizes principles of ecotourism and smart growth to balance tourism, community, and environmental goals in order to maintain a healthy environment and contribute to the local community. Located several miles south of the town of Todos Santos in Baja California Sur, Mexico, Las Palmas is a 490 acre site with a mixed use development focused on ecological preservation and the integration of tourism with the local community. Entirely pedestrian oriented, the development includes a 46 unit ecolodge that is connected to a town center composed of a variety of housing types, and features commercial services, selected retail, and fitness and community centers. A 14 acre organic farm weaves through the development providing fresh vegetables to the local market and restaurants. 95% of the site is set aside as permanent natural open space run by research facilities that responsibly guide visitors through its natural beauties. Sustainable practices and research at Las Palmas include an onsite constructed wetland to treat and reuse wastewater, energy-efficient design strategies, a solar harvesting farm, an onsite agricultural center, and ecological regeneration.
    • Lessons learned from 13 street tree programs that work

      McPherson, E. Gregory; Ratliff, Judith Diana, 1950- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      As public and private groups around the country--spurred on by the deforestation of our cities--gear up for a major tree planting effort between now and the turn of the century, many planners are seeking examples of successful planting programs to give them ideas about how best to proceed. An extensive survey of 13 acknowledged successful street tree planting programs was undertaken to illuminate a shared framework for fruitful action, including organizational structure and funding strategies. Street tree programs were targeted because these trees planted in the public right-of-way are truly community trees. Both governmental and privately run programs were part of the survey. A major finding is that many cities are moving toward a partnership between private organizations and city forestry programs to fund the planting and maintenance of trees. While the surveyed programs have proved fairly adept at matching trees with existing planting sites, there is almost a complete lack of master planning of the vegetative resource and no thought given to altering prevailing modes of urban development to make more room for trees.
    • Linking Children and Nature through Design: Integrating nature education for children of the Texas Panhandle into Palo Duro Canyon

      Booth, Amy; Johnson, Lauri MacMillan; Livingston, Margaret; Scott, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It has been suggested that the natural world establishes one of the most significant contexts children encounter during their most critical years of development. When children are allowed to interact with nature, they are able to make essential connections between humans, animals, natural systems, and gain a better understanding of the world at large. Unfortunately, within the span of a few decades, more and more children are losing touch with the natural world; the way they comprehend and interact with the outdoors is radically changing. To battle the current indoor trends, outdoor learning environments are springing up all over the country. This project serves to further examine outdoor educational facilities and to tailor a modified outdoor nature center prototype into the base of Palo Duro Canyon State Park in the Texas Panhandle. A final master plan will examine ways to implement various educational strategies for children while respecting the existing canyon ecosystem and ingraining a sense of stewardship into the nature center’s young visitors.
    • Lizard Tales Loop: An Urban Greenway throug Flood Mitigation and Wildlife Education

      Johnstone, Rebecca (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This project aims to look at the various ways that we can aid our washes in rehabilitation strategies to promote a healthier ecosystem for people and wildlife. Through research, a site was picked to be able to demonstrate ways of providing interactive learning on these rehabilitation strategies as well as to highlight lizards as one of the wildlife species that live in the washes. Techniques that were used to rehabilitate the washes include slowing, sinking, and spreading the water in vacant parcels that have more room using detention basins, terracing, and baffles to naturally meander the wash’s path.
    • Malls of Memory: DEATH AND REBIRTH IN A SUBURBAN LANDSCAPE

      Livingston, Margaret; White, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In today’s suburban landscape, the shopping center has become a significant destination for many. Vastly sized, it has become a cultural landmark within many suburban and urban neighborhoods. Not only a space for ‘purchasing’, the suburban shopping center has become a place to shop, a place to eat, a place to meet, a place to exercise – a social space. However, with the development and dominance of big box retail stores and online shopping on the rise, suburban shopping malls as we currently know them, are slowly disappearing. Suburban malls, which were once successful in serving their suburban communities, are on the decline. These malls are suffering financially as stores close and the community no longer has reason to attend these dying monoliths – it is with this catalyst that the mall eventually has no choice but to close. With little additional places for social engagement in a suburban community, the mall has become a contradictory example of what it was once intended to do. A place for social and civic engagement, as well as an economic triumph has now become an eye sore – a burden on the community it was once designed to serve. Citizens are forced to drive elsewhere – arguably to a regional mall, or a big box power center. What if a declining mall could be repurposed or redefined to enhance the community it stands within by reimagining the shopping mall? Are there possibilities for a reimagined shopping center – possibilities that would resist the single minded consumerist approach and instill a sense of place within the community it stands? This master’s report is aimed at determining a new typology for a failing approach to consumerism, architecture and landscape architecture – an approach that focuses on social engagement and meaningful connections with the surrounding community. There have been a number of advancements and changes within consumerism in the Western World - a cycling of architectural styles, technological innovation and social trends. By focusing on the ‘next shift’ in successful urban planning, this report opens up a new possibility of both consumerism and social engagement acting harmoniously. Can these ‘dead malls’ help define a ‘sense of place’ within the community they were originally part of? Rather than discarding (literally tearing down) what once was a flourishing space of both consumerism and social engagement, can they be reimagined to enhance the community beyond a reductive view of pure consumerism, and become a new landmark that will have the potential to enhance and engage the community, as well as contribute to the economic success of a city?