Livingston, Margaret; White, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In today’s suburban landscape, the shopping center has become a significant destination for many. Vastly sized, it has become a cultural landmark within many suburban and urban neighborhoods. Not only a space for ‘purchasing’, the suburban shopping center has become a place to shop, a place to eat, a place to meet, a place to exercise – a social space. However, with the development and dominance of big box retail stores and online shopping on the rise, suburban shopping malls as we currently know them, are slowly disappearing. Suburban malls, which were once successful in serving their suburban communities, are on the decline. These malls are suffering financially as stores close and the community no longer has reason to attend these dying monoliths – it is with this catalyst that the mall eventually has no choice but to close. With little additional places for social engagement in a suburban community, the mall has become a contradictory example of what it was once intended to do. A place for social and civic engagement, as well as an economic triumph has now become an eye sore – a burden on the community it was once designed to serve. Citizens are forced to drive elsewhere – arguably to a regional mall, or a big box power center. What if a declining mall could be repurposed or redefined to enhance the community it stands within by reimagining the shopping mall? Are there possibilities for a reimagined shopping center – possibilities that would resist the single minded consumerist approach and instill a sense of place within the community it stands? This master’s report is aimed at determining a new typology for a failing approach to consumerism, architecture and landscape architecture – an approach that focuses on social engagement and meaningful connections with the surrounding community. There have been a number of advancements and changes within consumerism in the Western World - a cycling of architectural styles, technological innovation and social trends. By focusing on the ‘next shift’ in successful urban planning, this report opens up a new possibility of both consumerism and social engagement acting harmoniously. Can these ‘dead malls’ help define a ‘sense of place’ within the community they were originally part of? Rather than discarding (literally tearing down) what once was a flourishing space of both consumerism and social engagement, can they be reimagined to enhance the community beyond a reductive view of pure consumerism, and become a new landmark that will have the potential to enhance and engage the community, as well as contribute to the economic success of a city?
    • Maximizing Minimal Green Space: Re-thinking land use on Coast Guard Bases

      Rasmussen, Libby; Stoltz, Ron (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Green space and how it is utilized on Coast Guard bases varies widely due to a lack in regulations on green space development. Creating a design and development model for green space that can be applied to all bases and yet still be customizable, will help set guidelines on this type of land use that can ultimately increase the morale and well-being of the Coast Guard members. The model will be based on small scale design that incorporates nodes of activity, creating spaces that encourage physical fitness and recreation that address Coast Guard fitness requirements, support military functions, and increase the opportunities for outdoor social gathering spaces. Inherent to the node designs will be the use of ecologically minded design that will encourage habitat creation and storm water filtrations in conjunction with the use native plants. These micro-scale designs will focus on conservative installation and maintenance costs and require smaller spaces to implement than typical larger scale solutions, yet could pay off exponentially in increased physical and positive social activity in these spaces. Once the model is created, it will be applied to the Coast Guard Base Seattle located on Pier 36, downtown Seattle, WA.

      TORRES SAUCEDA, EMANUEL (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Metamorphosis: A master planned community renovation- from struggling golf course to vibrant desert community

      VanDenBerg, Kelly A.; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; Stoltz, Ron (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      As the popularity of golf grew in the 1990’s and real estate along golf courses brought in high property values, the building of golf courses in the Southwest boomed. However, supply of golf courses outgrew the demand (Downey, 2011). The National Golf Foundation predicts that 500-1,000 golf courses nationwide will close within the next 5 years (Schmidt, 2010). Cities and developers are facing a new problem: What to do with these defunct golf courses? These troubled golf courses provide opportunities for redesigning communities in order to make them more sustainable and resilient while preserving and enhancing much needed open space in urban areas. This project explores the redesign of a struggling golf course community in order to accommodate a larger variety of users. The design also rehabilitates the system of urban washes on site to functional ephemeral riparian areas that support wildlife habitat and provide amenities. Much of the disturbed areas covered with turf will be revegetated to resemble a more desert-like, native ecosystem. Furthermore, the design incorporates green infrastructure strategies to reduce and reuse water within the community and enhance the important riparian area along Tanque Verde wash. Methods for investigation included case reviews of existing associated projects. The design provides a conceptual framework for which this golf course or similar golf course repurposing projects may look in reference for viable ideas.
    • Mission Revival: Reimagining The San Xavier Mission Del Bac’s Relationship With the Land and its Community

      Livingston, Margaret; Bonnet, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Located in the Sonoran Desert ten miles southwest of Tucson, Arizona is Mission San Xavier Del Bac, a Franciscan mission and pilgrimage site that hosts hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. Founded by Spanish missionary Father Eusebio Kino in the late 17th century, the Mission has a storied history of intercultural trade and working relationships between the Native Tohono O’odham people and Spanish settlers. In the O’odham language, the mission is called “where the water runs in” in reference to the nearby Santa Cruz River. Historically, it ran year-round and was the catalyst for agricultural development in the area, but due to repeated human intervention is now primarily a dry bed. Today, the mission is an active parish that has achieved National Historic Landmark status and National Register designation. All of these factors culminate in a historic preservation project with intricate contextual layers that must be balanced and sensitively considered, which leads to critical questions throughout the process: What was the landscape like before and after various stages of human impact? Are there historic features that can be restored and preserved? If so, should they be? Ultimately, this project seeks to answer these questions through the lens of responsive site design both at the Mission and the surrounding Reservation landscape. The story of this land is a significant one, and this project seeks to accomplish how best to share it.
    • MULTI[FUNCTIONAL] an approach to maximize use of remnant urban space

      Hatch, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      The urbanization boom this country experienced in the twentieth century set the foundation for the urban fabric we live in today. The urban fabric functions as a result of the many and varied systems modern society has built in hopes of taming the forces of nature. An important example of one of these networks, though seldom seen and rarely celebrated, is the urban drainage system. Creeks and wetlands covered significant portions of coastal southern California until urbanization arrived in the early twentieth century. Typically small in scale but rich in biodiversity, these creeks came roaring to life following winter rains, draining the basin to the sea, all while feeding the wetlands that protected the coastal land. However, in an attempt to eliminate flooding risk and provide stable land on which to build, the majority of the coastal creeks were entombed in concrete, some above ground, and others below. What sounded like a good idea at the time has become a relic of the past. The experiment has demonstrated what happens when an ecological resource is misinterpreted as a liability in the urban fabric. That is, with research and observation, it is now becoming clear that these resources are assets to the communities and regions in their vicinities. Additionally, these potential resources have been walled off and shut away from the public, creating corridors that act as barriers within the urban fabric. A new attitude has emerged toward urban drainage infrastructure as the potential ecological and social benefits of green infrastructure become clearer in the public’s mind. Research along with many successful infrastructure projects from around the globe demonstrate the potential multiple benefits green infrastructure strategies can provide. These projects offer examples of strategies and elements that combine to create successful multi-functional spaces centered on urban infrastructure. A desire to synthesize these new strategies and traditional landscape architectural methods informed the development of a master plan for remnant urban space straddling a channelized coastal waterway in Oxnard, CA. This project demonstrates one approach to re-imagining coastal infrastructure as a multifunctional asset that provides habitat and recreational and social opportunities for the local community.
    • Natural Heart: Yangchun Lake Suburban Center Master Plan

      Wang, Yuxin (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Urbanization in China is rapidly improving with the economic growth. But the development that ignores environment has caused lots of environmental problems in Chinese cities, especially the large ones. As the capital of Hubei Province, Wuhan is the fifth among China cities for its size and its economic production. Because of extreme urbanization and high dense population in Wuhan city, some significant issues have been constantly emerged: lack of adequate wastewater management and water resources protection, urgent need for efficient solution to sludge treatment and disposal, serious urban flooding because of the natural flow or urban lakes and streams restriction, degradation of water quality, and so on. These issues have been seriously impacted the quality life in the city. Along with the urbanization, the conflicts between urban development and ecosystem are inescapable. How can urban development balance environmental sensitivity to support ecological health in the vulnerable urban ecosystem and mitigate the problems in the city? This project tries to redesign a master plan for Yangchun Lake sub-urban center in Wuhan city and find suitable ways to mitigate these problems with attention to the environmental, functional, economic, social and aesthetics aspects of the proposed solutions. The design will balance the urban development and environmental protection, support and enhance the development of a new ecological urban center.
    • New Civic Center for the border city of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

      Moreno, Laura Irene (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      Nogales, Sonora, is one of many cities along the international border between Mexico and the United States, and the most important border crossing for the state of Sonora. Although each of them unique, they have similar problems as a result of the accelerated economic and demographic growth, such as high migration rate, frantic activities downtown, and overwhelming traffic. These cities must act before they become larger cities with serious health, environmental and social issues; they need to boost up their economy in order to become destination points. A general condition in Nogales, Sonora is the location of downtown within the fi rst blocks south of the border. Many agencies are ‘fitted’ into pre-existing buildings, making them deficient in interior, exterior and parking space, as well as character and status. Commercial establishments and “tourist” attractions are also located here. This overloading range of ongoing activities causes them to interfere with each other. The recommendation is to remove government buildings from downtown and group them together. This effort intends to relieve the entanglement of activities in the area, allowing for commercial services and tourist activities to flourish, helping the city’s economy. Additionally, reducing the traffic flow in the first few blocks south of the border will offer a safer and more appealing entrance to Sonora from the U.S. Relocating government agencies away from downtown hopes as well to remove the flow of users (and traffic) generated by them. There is an effort to group government agencies together away from downtown The developers (private sector) of a projected Urban Center, located on the rapidly developing south part of the city, are donating 15 hectares within the area known as “El Greco” (the Greek in Spanish) destined for creation of a Civic Center. The city is lacking of character and sense of pride. The grouping of the government agencies in a well planned assemble could provide the government with a strong image and respect. This report proposes the development of design guidelines for a new Civic Center in the city of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, that may be applicable to other Mexican cities along the northern border with the U.S. These design guidelines will facilitate the development of the Civic Center, as an integral part of the Urban Center, as well as of the city itself. This report culminates in the creation of a prototype Master Plan for the proposed site applying the design guidelines resulting from the research. Introducing Landscape Architecture principles hopes to sensitize and educate a culture that is unaware of the potential and benefits of this discipline. The document will provide a Landscape Architecture approach towards exterior space; specifically within a government building assemble.
    • A New Life Behind Bars - A Prison Retrofit From Prison to Community Resource

      Machado, Micaela; Scott, Beth; Scott, Beth; Stoltz, Ron; North, Deb (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Sustainability practices in design development are a common goal in urban settings, especially in an environment such as the arid Southwest U.S. where resources are limited. Here, sunshine and heat are abundant where water resources are low. So, how can we use these circumstances and constraints to our advantage in future designs or in potential retrofits? Institutional establishments with long-term residents, such as prisons, which use a significant amount of resources can reduce their energy, food and water costs by using sustainable practices. These practices can help reduce the costs of prisoner housing and eventually lower costs to tax payers. This project focuses on a hypothetical retrofit of the Wilmot Department of Corrections (Wilmot D.O.C.) prison facility in Tucson, AZ.

      Starr, Gregory D. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • ONE TREE AT A TIME: exploring equity in landscape architecture through incremental change

      Livingston, Margaret; Jon, Choi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The field of Landscape Architecture has been increasingly focused on issues surrounding equity, equitable development and equitable access to green space. Rightfully so, given that low income and minority communities statistically have inequitable access to green space when compared to their more affluent neighbors and suffer from increased exposure to the harmful effects of pollution and extreme weather (Gould & Lewis 2017, Byrne, Wolch & Zhang, 2009; McConnachie & Shackleton 2010). Strategies to address these issues range in scale and approach and are often associated with words like ‘green growth’, ‘sustainable development’, ’urban greening’ and ‘urban revitalization’. While this ambiguous language presents its own challenges, addressing equity in landscape architecture is not necessarily any clearer. Through a process of literature review, case studies, research and community engagement, this project explores issues of equity in the Oracle area neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona. Final outcomes will include two neighborhood improvement project proposals informed by community engagement and the development of resources to aid communities seeking their own neighborhood improvements. Process and outcome reflection will provide thoughts on addressing equity in landscape architecture but given the uniqueness of each community and their circumstances, definitive solutions will not be provided. It is through continued questioning that the process of promoting equity within our communities will grow, evolve and improve.
    • Parks are for People

      Livingston, Margaret; Moscato, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Rio Rico, a planned community in southern Arizona, sits along the Santa Cruz River between the Santa Rita Mountains and Coronado National Forest. The intent of this project is to provide Rio Rico with proposed locations for a network of parks paying close attention to the people and natural and cultural resources of this unique community. The project aims to create parks that are easily and safely accessible to community members of all ages. The park amenities will highlight Rio Rico’s natural resources and community assets and promote public and ecological health. Combining geospatial data with environmental and cultural analysis along with input from community meetings and public surveys, a series of parks are proposed to promote community connections, health and recreation.

      Cast, Stephen Robert, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This research attempts to establish that landscapes can support and enhance a business identity program. Previous environmental perception research has investigated affective and cognitive responses to natural landscapes, but little, if any, research has explored the area of meaning in a business landscape. Consequently, this study develops a theoretical framework from which to demonstrate a business identity in the landscape. In an effort to structure a framework for both affective and cognitive meanings in business environments, this study draws on past environmental perception research that focuses on affective responses to molar environments. From out of this research design, affective and cognitive dimensions are identified that allow testing of business identities in the environment. Findings show that landscapes can support and enhance an overall business identity program. The study concludes with a discussion of future research that might further the benefits of landscapes to the business community.
    • Perceptions of quality of life held by Tubac residents: A further exploration of qualitative approach to quality of life research

      Wilkin, Donovan C.; Mann, Hili Sonia, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study explores: (1) Attitudes and perceptions of Tubac residents that may have an impact on their QOL--both personally and at the community level; and (2) QOL measurement techniques that may contribute to the utilization of QOL indicators as a tool for studying and monitoring human communities toward a sustainable future. Informal interviews were conducted with seventeen Tubac residents followed by the distribution of a questionnaire in a "snowball" sampling method (Bernard, 1994). Fifty-two responses were compiled and compared for similarities and differences. Results demonstrate the majority of Tubac residents are extremely satisfied with the QOL and feel fortunate to live in a community they believe is unique--mostly for its surrounding natural scenery. Results also support the idea that qualitative approaches to QOL measurement techniques are necessary for further comprehension of the complexities of human communities.
    • Pilgrim Hot Springs: A Master Plan: Bringing together geothermal energy, history and Iñupiaq culture to create a sustainable and economically viable eco-tourism destination to the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Hallbert, Desneige Marie; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Babb, Zachary (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Pilgrim Hot Springs is a historic landscape in northwestern Alaska on the Seward Peninsula. It is located 60 miles north of Nome, the end location of the famous Iditarod dogsled race. Once a Catholic orphanage, today it is a hot springs soaking destination for those who know of its existence and who are able to access it. Recently, under the ownership of Unaataq, LLC, a consortium of seven Native corporations and regional nonprofits, plans to renovate the site are just beginning. This master’s report assists Unaataq, LLC, in the design of a Master Plan to reinvigorate Pilgrim Hot Springs using ecological, historical, and cultural sensitivity to drive the design. This Master Plan uses the concept of integrating recreation, conservation, and education to create a viable economic ecotourism base camp from which other tourism opportunities based on the Seward Peninsula can be accessed. Pilgrim Hot Springs will provide creative options for year round human comforts and recreation, will sustainably harvest geothermal energy to operate off the grid, and create agricultural opportunities for the resort and the local native communities for year round consumption and economic gain. Methods for investigation include: case reviews of existing similar projects, site visit and landscape analysis, and informal interviews.
    • Planning and design of the urban park: A study of use patterns at Fort Lowell Park and the creation of new design guidelines for park development in Tucson, Arizona

      Gimblett, Randy; Longaker, Robert George (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This thesis will study Fort Lowell Park, a typical district park in Tucson, Arizona. Through a survey of park users, the park itself will be assessed according to its positive and negative aspects. The survey itself will seek to capture the thoughts, beliefs, and recreational needs of the typical park user in Tucson. Through the compilation and interpretation of survey results, and with the assistance of case studies involving cities investing in parks and open spaces, the author of this thesis expects to produce new guidelines not only for the improvement of Fort Lowell Park, but also for the planning and design of new urban parks in the Tucson metropolitan area. These new guidelines will not only improve the quality of recreational experiences in the City of Tucson, but will also contribute to the economic, social, and quality of life variables which make a city an attractive place in which to live.
    • Potential Use of Water Harvesting in an Urban Development on State Urban Lands in the Tucson Area

      Gutierrez, Joni Marie.; Wilkin, Donovan C.; Hebel, Susan Jane; Cluff, Carwin Brent (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      Tucson, Arizona's population depends on its natural water supply as the largest community in the nation to rely entirely upon groundwater. With a population growth rate of 41/2 percent a year, Tucson's groundwater levels have been declining. State Urban Land, available for urban development in the Tucson area, is largely located where groundwater supplies are limited. If these lands are to be developed, insitu surface water supplies have to be utilized. This study examines an actual planned subdivision case study, Fairway Villas, along with existing water harvesting technologies. The case study and existing technologies are then incorporated into two additional schemes of design and compared. Comparisons of the potential runoff and economic feasibility were made. The two redesigned subdivision schemes indicated the runoff potential of the sites is enough to supply the subdivision with water for all landscape needs in both cases. Economically, the two additional schemes become feasible at a water rate increase of 7 and 10 percent, respectively. The State Land Department has the potential to fully develop their Urban Land near Tucson if alternative water supplies, such as water harvesting, are utilized.

      Lehman, Brianna (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Tubac Presidio State Historic Park has the unique distinction of being the first state park in Arizona. It also firmly sits within the varied cultural history of southern Arizona, along the De Anza trail and is a part of the mission system in the Santa Cruz River Valley. The Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac was established in 1752, and was the first European settlement in what later became the state of Arizona. It is one of only three presidios in the state of Arizona, and is the only one that can be easily visited. There are a number of structures within the park that are placed on the National Register of Historic Places. The park itself has suffered under budget cuts from the State of Arizona, and recently faced being shut down. An intrepid group of volunteers stepped forward and manages the day-to-day activities of the park, while fundraising for improvements and other capital costs. Because of the budget cuts, and ensuing issues, the park suffers from a lack of attention, and poor visitor experience. This project will propose a master plan for development within the park that will focus on the visitor’s experience, as well as phasing strategies for eventual implementation of the plan. This plan will specifically focus on large-scale issues, such as site circulation, grading and drainage, and interpretive landscape design. Appropriate and interpretive design will help communicate the significance of this area in the history of Arizona, as well as the development of the Southwest. This site also provides an opportunity to display native and appropriate landscape design for this region, and educating other visitors in the uniqueness of the natural habitat of the upper Sonoran Desert. This project will also illustrate signage and other interpretive elements to address the challenge of clearly communicating the importance of a historic site that is not necessarily highly visible in the site alone.
    • Reclaiming Forgotten Corridors; An Urban Greenway System Utilizing Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, Arizona

      Livingston, Margaret; Lotze, Wendy; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Like many cities in the western United States, Tucson, Arizona, was developed on a geometrically determined grid system, with streets aligned with a preset north-south/east-west alignment that paid little heed to the area's natural features and topography. Through necessity, certain watercourses were maintained to help deal with the occasional and sometimes severe flood waters that converge upon the area - however, these features were hidden within, or in some cases under, the urban matrix. This study seeks to examine how secondary watercourses can be partnered with other open space features to create a regional greenway system that connects desirable destinations throughout the city. Special focus is placed upon identification of public open spaces and amenities as destinations. Through the integration of destination-based design, greenway experiences become more rewarding and thus more valuable to the user, motivating preservation of these corridors which would ultimately benefit both the community and the natural environment.