• ONE TREE AT A TIME: exploring equity in landscape architecture through incremental change

      Livingston, Margaret; Jon, Choi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The field of Landscape Architecture has been increasingly focused on issues surrounding equity, equitable development and equitable access to green space. Rightfully so, given that low income and minority communities statistically have inequitable access to green space when compared to their more affluent neighbors and suffer from increased exposure to the harmful effects of pollution and extreme weather (Gould & Lewis 2017, Byrne, Wolch & Zhang, 2009; McConnachie & Shackleton 2010). Strategies to address these issues range in scale and approach and are often associated with words like ‘green growth’, ‘sustainable development’, ’urban greening’ and ‘urban revitalization’. While this ambiguous language presents its own challenges, addressing equity in landscape architecture is not necessarily any clearer. Through a process of literature review, case studies, research and community engagement, this project explores issues of equity in the Oracle area neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona. Final outcomes will include two neighborhood improvement project proposals informed by community engagement and the development of resources to aid communities seeking their own neighborhood improvements. Process and outcome reflection will provide thoughts on addressing equity in landscape architecture but given the uniqueness of each community and their circumstances, definitive solutions will not be provided. It is through continued questioning that the process of promoting equity within our communities will grow, evolve and improve.
    • Parks are for People

      Livingston, Margaret; Moscato, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Rio Rico, a planned community in southern Arizona, sits along the Santa Cruz River between the Santa Rita Mountains and Coronado National Forest. The intent of this project is to provide Rio Rico with proposed locations for a network of parks paying close attention to the people and natural and cultural resources of this unique community. The project aims to create parks that are easily and safely accessible to community members of all ages. The park amenities will highlight Rio Rico’s natural resources and community assets and promote public and ecological health. Combining geospatial data with environmental and cultural analysis along with input from community meetings and public surveys, a series of parks are proposed to promote community connections, health and recreation.
    • PERCEPTIONS OF BUSINESS IMAGERY IN THE LANDSCAPE

      Cast, Stephen Robert, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This research attempts to establish that landscapes can support and enhance a business identity program. Previous environmental perception research has investigated affective and cognitive responses to natural landscapes, but little, if any, research has explored the area of meaning in a business landscape. Consequently, this study develops a theoretical framework from which to demonstrate a business identity in the landscape. In an effort to structure a framework for both affective and cognitive meanings in business environments, this study draws on past environmental perception research that focuses on affective responses to molar environments. From out of this research design, affective and cognitive dimensions are identified that allow testing of business identities in the environment. Findings show that landscapes can support and enhance an overall business identity program. The study concludes with a discussion of future research that might further the benefits of landscapes to the business community.
    • Perceptions of quality of life held by Tubac residents: A further exploration of qualitative approach to quality of life research

      Wilkin, Donovan C.; Mann, Hili Sonia, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study explores: (1) Attitudes and perceptions of Tubac residents that may have an impact on their QOL--both personally and at the community level; and (2) QOL measurement techniques that may contribute to the utilization of QOL indicators as a tool for studying and monitoring human communities toward a sustainable future. Informal interviews were conducted with seventeen Tubac residents followed by the distribution of a questionnaire in a "snowball" sampling method (Bernard, 1994). Fifty-two responses were compiled and compared for similarities and differences. Results demonstrate the majority of Tubac residents are extremely satisfied with the QOL and feel fortunate to live in a community they believe is unique--mostly for its surrounding natural scenery. Results also support the idea that qualitative approaches to QOL measurement techniques are necessary for further comprehension of the complexities of human communities.
    • Pilgrim Hot Springs: A Master Plan: Bringing together geothermal energy, history and Iñupiaq culture to create a sustainable and economically viable eco-tourism destination to the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Hallbert, Desneige Marie; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Babb, Zachary (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Pilgrim Hot Springs is a historic landscape in northwestern Alaska on the Seward Peninsula. It is located 60 miles north of Nome, the end location of the famous Iditarod dogsled race. Once a Catholic orphanage, today it is a hot springs soaking destination for those who know of its existence and who are able to access it. Recently, under the ownership of Unaataq, LLC, a consortium of seven Native corporations and regional nonprofits, plans to renovate the site are just beginning. This master’s report assists Unaataq, LLC, in the design of a Master Plan to reinvigorate Pilgrim Hot Springs using ecological, historical, and cultural sensitivity to drive the design. This Master Plan uses the concept of integrating recreation, conservation, and education to create a viable economic ecotourism base camp from which other tourism opportunities based on the Seward Peninsula can be accessed. Pilgrim Hot Springs will provide creative options for year round human comforts and recreation, will sustainably harvest geothermal energy to operate off the grid, and create agricultural opportunities for the resort and the local native communities for year round consumption and economic gain. Methods for investigation include: case reviews of existing similar projects, site visit and landscape analysis, and informal interviews.
    • Planning and design of the urban park: A study of use patterns at Fort Lowell Park and the creation of new design guidelines for park development in Tucson, Arizona

      Gimblett, Randy; Longaker, Robert George (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This thesis will study Fort Lowell Park, a typical district park in Tucson, Arizona. Through a survey of park users, the park itself will be assessed according to its positive and negative aspects. The survey itself will seek to capture the thoughts, beliefs, and recreational needs of the typical park user in Tucson. Through the compilation and interpretation of survey results, and with the assistance of case studies involving cities investing in parks and open spaces, the author of this thesis expects to produce new guidelines not only for the improvement of Fort Lowell Park, but also for the planning and design of new urban parks in the Tucson metropolitan area. These new guidelines will not only improve the quality of recreational experiences in the City of Tucson, but will also contribute to the economic, social, and quality of life variables which make a city an attractive place in which to live.
    • Potential Use of Water Harvesting in an Urban Development on State Urban Lands in the Tucson Area

      Gutierrez, Joni Marie.; Wilkin, Donovan C.; Hebel, Susan Jane; Cluff, Carwin Brent (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      Tucson, Arizona's population depends on its natural water supply as the largest community in the nation to rely entirely upon groundwater. With a population growth rate of 41/2 percent a year, Tucson's groundwater levels have been declining. State Urban Land, available for urban development in the Tucson area, is largely located where groundwater supplies are limited. If these lands are to be developed, insitu surface water supplies have to be utilized. This study examines an actual planned subdivision case study, Fairway Villas, along with existing water harvesting technologies. The case study and existing technologies are then incorporated into two additional schemes of design and compared. Comparisons of the potential runoff and economic feasibility were made. The two redesigned subdivision schemes indicated the runoff potential of the sites is enough to supply the subdivision with water for all landscape needs in both cases. Economically, the two additional schemes become feasible at a water rate increase of 7 and 10 percent, respectively. The State Land Department has the potential to fully develop their Urban Land near Tucson if alternative water supplies, such as water harvesting, are utilized.
    • PRESIDIO DEL TUBAC MASTER PLAN

      Lehman, Brianna (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Tubac Presidio State Historic Park has the unique distinction of being the first state park in Arizona. It also firmly sits within the varied cultural history of southern Arizona, along the De Anza trail and is a part of the mission system in the Santa Cruz River Valley. The Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac was established in 1752, and was the first European settlement in what later became the state of Arizona. It is one of only three presidios in the state of Arizona, and is the only one that can be easily visited. There are a number of structures within the park that are placed on the National Register of Historic Places. The park itself has suffered under budget cuts from the State of Arizona, and recently faced being shut down. An intrepid group of volunteers stepped forward and manages the day-to-day activities of the park, while fundraising for improvements and other capital costs. Because of the budget cuts, and ensuing issues, the park suffers from a lack of attention, and poor visitor experience. This project will propose a master plan for development within the park that will focus on the visitor’s experience, as well as phasing strategies for eventual implementation of the plan. This plan will specifically focus on large-scale issues, such as site circulation, grading and drainage, and interpretive landscape design. Appropriate and interpretive design will help communicate the significance of this area in the history of Arizona, as well as the development of the Southwest. This site also provides an opportunity to display native and appropriate landscape design for this region, and educating other visitors in the uniqueness of the natural habitat of the upper Sonoran Desert. This project will also illustrate signage and other interpretive elements to address the challenge of clearly communicating the importance of a historic site that is not necessarily highly visible in the site alone.
    • Reclaiming Forgotten Corridors; An Urban Greenway System Utilizing Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, Arizona

      Livingston, Margaret; Lotze, Wendy; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Like many cities in the western United States, Tucson, Arizona, was developed on a geometrically determined grid system, with streets aligned with a preset north-south/east-west alignment that paid little heed to the area's natural features and topography. Through necessity, certain watercourses were maintained to help deal with the occasional and sometimes severe flood waters that converge upon the area - however, these features were hidden within, or in some cases under, the urban matrix. This study seeks to examine how secondary watercourses can be partnered with other open space features to create a regional greenway system that connects desirable destinations throughout the city. Special focus is placed upon identification of public open spaces and amenities as destinations. Through the integration of destination-based design, greenway experiences become more rewarding and thus more valuable to the user, motivating preservation of these corridors which would ultimately benefit both the community and the natural environment.
    • Recreational Potential for Aridland Drainageways Tucson, Arizona A Design Model

      Blazquez Graf, Oscar A.; Rodiek, Jon E. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      The population shift to the arid and semiarid southwest of the United States of North America has increased the need for recreation open areas within the cities. This problem has been found in developing cities like Tucson, Arizona. This thesis deals with one component of the overall parkland problem, the use of washes and drainageways as open recreation areas. Using Tucson, Arizona as a study area, three linear parks along the washes within the urban area are used as case studies. Each park is analyzed in its location, access, facilities, and vegetation. This analysis gives a picture of each park and its advantages and disadvantages. From the case studies the analysis is compiled into planning/design concepts and recommendations. These products will be helpful to landscape architects and planners in the development of new linear parks along the washes and drainageways of the arid and semiarid cities.
    • Redesign of Eldora Mountain Resort: A Conceptual Plan to Enhance Boulder's Backyard

      Sullivan, Sara E.; Scott, Elizabeth; Stoltz, Ronald; Frederickson, Mark (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      When skiing was originally introduced, the sport was focused on the mountain and recreational experience. However, as the market has expanded and operations have improved, ski resorts have turned into large corporate businesses competing with each other and making it difficult for smaller resorts, such as Eldora Mountain Resort, to survive. Just as important, the essence of the sport has become diluted, as the natural mountain experience is becoming lost among the corporate industry. In addition to the large expansive resorts, there is intense land use and a number of environmental impacts such as clear cutting, loss of habitat, erosion, and high water use. Eldora Mountain Resort is a small ski resort outside of Nederland, CO generally used for day skiing. While major destination and day skiing resorts such as Vail, Aspen, and Breckenridge continue to dominate the Interstate 70 corridor, Eldora has a unique opportunity to accommodate skiers and mountain enthusiasts of northern Colorado, as there are no other ski resorts in its immediate surroundings. The resort currently lacks on-site lodging and has limited use during the warm months, with the exception of hiking. The purpose of this research is to address key issues of mountain tourism and the associated environmental impacts in a conceptual redesign of Eldora Mountain Resort. This project examines how Eldora Mountain Resort can integrate year-round recreational opportunities, while focusing on how the resort can strengthen its connection to the natural mountain setting and improve environmental practices, all while creating a unique experience for visitors.
    • Relationship between landscape architects and landscape contractors: Real vs ideal

      Havens, William H.; Spencer, Jo Ann, 1951- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      How well individuals relate or communicate with one another can make or break a project. Landscape architects and contractors appear to have a relationship which is tarnished by mistrust. This mistrust hinders communication and prevents jobs from running as smoothly as possible. Research was conducted to collect data on the relationship between landscape architects and landscape contractors. A questionnaire was designed and sent to one hundred landscape architects and contractors within the State of Arizona to gather first hand information from the involved parties. Results from the research indicated relationships have improved over the past ten years. Areas suggested for further growth: (not in any particular order of importance) (1) establishment of a joint organization, (2) internship programs for landscape architectural students, (3) specifications tailored to specific projects, (4) a referral agency for contractors, (5) revamping competitive bid system, (6) nursery visitation for both parties, (7) architects taking the leadership role in the industry.
    • Relationship between remnant size and plant species richness in the Tucson urban matrix

      Livingston, Margaret; Duncan, Allison B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      The Sonoran Desert surrounding Tucson, Arizona is the dominant matrix in a region undergoing a transition from desert matrix to urban matrix with little emphasis placed on preserving this native ecosystem intact. Instead, patches of desert, remnants, are cut off the desert matrix and surrounded by a variety of land uses including residential, transit, and commercial. 31 sites within the City of Tucson were surveyed and the site's plant species richness, woody cover, herbaceous cover, and disturbance percentage measured. The plants found on-site were classified into native or exotic, annual or perennial, and woody or herbaceous, and further broken down into growth form. Results indicated a significant correlation between a site's area and its percent disturbance, as well as correlations between its native vegetation and area.
    • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VISUAL PREFERENCE AND SPATIAL SCALE IN OUTDOOR URBAN PLAZAS

      Kelly, Shawn Timothy, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
    • REST-STOPS ON SAUDI ARABIAN HIGHWAYS (SERVICE AREAS)

      Alawayed, Abdulaziz Mohammed, 1957- (The University of Arizona., 1986)
    • Revitalization of Alleys - creating safe, social and green networks in central Tucson

      Zhao, Kexin; Livingston, Margaret; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; MacMillan-Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Alleys are underutilized corridors that can potentially provide many valuable uses in cities. Alleys can be used for multiple purposes during the day and night: conventional functions, dog walking, water harvesting, art display and as renewable energy showcases, to name a few. In addition, they can become welcoming and popular linear gathering spaces. On a grander scale, they can be used as networks and connections between destinations. This project proposes to evaluate the current challenges and opportunities of alleys in central Tucson, to create multiple design templates for safe, social, and green alleys, and to enhance the connectivity to Tucson Modern Streetcar Areas.
    • The Revitalization Of Benson, Arizona

      O'Sullivan, Rheana (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    • Rillito River Restoration Southeast Branch: Green Infrastructure Strategies and App Technology in a Xeroriparian System

      Livingston, Margaret; Elbirt Carnaval, Diana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Tucson basin experiences intermittent flooding events during its bimodal rain seasons. The development of the city’s infrastructure that has accompanied its increased urbanization is mostly dependent on grey infrastructure for storm water management that has been unsuccessful in slowing peak flows, recharging aquifers, and sustaining biogeochemical cycles that support habitat. A plan that focuses on an area of the south bank Rillito River, between N Craycroft Rd and N Swan Rd, will propose a series of green infrastructure strategies to manage ephemeral water flows. An investigation of hydrologically sensitive master plans in urban areas comparable to Tucson via literature review, ecological data, and the consideration of historical ecological and cultural history of the Tucson basin, will inform a design proposal that enhances biological diversity, supports economic development, enhances connectivity, and supports users’ well-being, within the urban context.