• Reclaiming Forgotten Corridors; An Urban Greenway System Utilizing Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, Arizona

      Livingston, Margaret; Lotze, Wendy; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Like many cities in the western United States, Tucson, Arizona, was developed on a geometrically determined grid system, with streets aligned with a preset north-south/east-west alignment that paid little heed to the area's natural features and topography. Through necessity, certain watercourses were maintained to help deal with the occasional and sometimes severe flood waters that converge upon the area - however, these features were hidden within, or in some cases under, the urban matrix. This study seeks to examine how secondary watercourses can be partnered with other open space features to create a regional greenway system that connects desirable destinations throughout the city. Special focus is placed upon identification of public open spaces and amenities as destinations. Through the integration of destination-based design, greenway experiences become more rewarding and thus more valuable to the user, motivating preservation of these corridors which would ultimately benefit both the community and the natural environment.
    • Recreational Potential for Aridland Drainageways Tucson, Arizona A Design Model

      Blazquez Graf, Oscar A.; Rodiek, Jon E. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      The population shift to the arid and semiarid southwest of the United States of North America has increased the need for recreation open areas within the cities. This problem has been found in developing cities like Tucson, Arizona. This thesis deals with one component of the overall parkland problem, the use of washes and drainageways as open recreation areas. Using Tucson, Arizona as a study area, three linear parks along the washes within the urban area are used as case studies. Each park is analyzed in its location, access, facilities, and vegetation. This analysis gives a picture of each park and its advantages and disadvantages. From the case studies the analysis is compiled into planning/design concepts and recommendations. These products will be helpful to landscape architects and planners in the development of new linear parks along the washes and drainageways of the arid and semiarid cities.
    • Redesign of Eldora Mountain Resort: A Conceptual Plan to Enhance Boulder's Backyard

      Sullivan, Sara E.; Scott, Elizabeth; Stoltz, Ronald; Frederickson, Mark (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      When skiing was originally introduced, the sport was focused on the mountain and recreational experience. However, as the market has expanded and operations have improved, ski resorts have turned into large corporate businesses competing with each other and making it difficult for smaller resorts, such as Eldora Mountain Resort, to survive. Just as important, the essence of the sport has become diluted, as the natural mountain experience is becoming lost among the corporate industry. In addition to the large expansive resorts, there is intense land use and a number of environmental impacts such as clear cutting, loss of habitat, erosion, and high water use. Eldora Mountain Resort is a small ski resort outside of Nederland, CO generally used for day skiing. While major destination and day skiing resorts such as Vail, Aspen, and Breckenridge continue to dominate the Interstate 70 corridor, Eldora has a unique opportunity to accommodate skiers and mountain enthusiasts of northern Colorado, as there are no other ski resorts in its immediate surroundings. The resort currently lacks on-site lodging and has limited use during the warm months, with the exception of hiking. The purpose of this research is to address key issues of mountain tourism and the associated environmental impacts in a conceptual redesign of Eldora Mountain Resort. This project examines how Eldora Mountain Resort can integrate year-round recreational opportunities, while focusing on how the resort can strengthen its connection to the natural mountain setting and improve environmental practices, all while creating a unique experience for visitors.
    • Relationship between landscape architects and landscape contractors: Real vs ideal

      Havens, William H.; Spencer, Jo Ann, 1951- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      How well individuals relate or communicate with one another can make or break a project. Landscape architects and contractors appear to have a relationship which is tarnished by mistrust. This mistrust hinders communication and prevents jobs from running as smoothly as possible. Research was conducted to collect data on the relationship between landscape architects and landscape contractors. A questionnaire was designed and sent to one hundred landscape architects and contractors within the State of Arizona to gather first hand information from the involved parties. Results from the research indicated relationships have improved over the past ten years. Areas suggested for further growth: (not in any particular order of importance) (1) establishment of a joint organization, (2) internship programs for landscape architectural students, (3) specifications tailored to specific projects, (4) a referral agency for contractors, (5) revamping competitive bid system, (6) nursery visitation for both parties, (7) architects taking the leadership role in the industry.
    • Relationship between remnant size and plant species richness in the Tucson urban matrix

      Livingston, Margaret; Duncan, Allison B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      The Sonoran Desert surrounding Tucson, Arizona is the dominant matrix in a region undergoing a transition from desert matrix to urban matrix with little emphasis placed on preserving this native ecosystem intact. Instead, patches of desert, remnants, are cut off the desert matrix and surrounded by a variety of land uses including residential, transit, and commercial. 31 sites within the City of Tucson were surveyed and the site's plant species richness, woody cover, herbaceous cover, and disturbance percentage measured. The plants found on-site were classified into native or exotic, annual or perennial, and woody or herbaceous, and further broken down into growth form. Results indicated a significant correlation between a site's area and its percent disturbance, as well as correlations between its native vegetation and area.

      Kelly, Shawn Timothy, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1987)

      Alawayed, Abdulaziz Mohammed, 1957- (The University of Arizona., 1986)
    • Revitalization of Alleys - creating safe, social and green networks in central Tucson

      Zhao, Kexin; Livingston, Margaret; Livingston, Margaret; Blazquez, Oscar; MacMillan-Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Alleys are underutilized corridors that can potentially provide many valuable uses in cities. Alleys can be used for multiple purposes during the day and night: conventional functions, dog walking, water harvesting, art display and as renewable energy showcases, to name a few. In addition, they can become welcoming and popular linear gathering spaces. On a grander scale, they can be used as networks and connections between destinations. This project proposes to evaluate the current challenges and opportunities of alleys in central Tucson, to create multiple design templates for safe, social, and green alleys, and to enhance the connectivity to Tucson Modern Streetcar Areas.
    • The Revitalization Of Benson, Arizona

      O'Sullivan, Rheana (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    • Rillito River Restoration Southeast Branch: Green Infrastructure Strategies and App Technology in a Xeroriparian System

      Livingston, Margaret; Elbirt Carnaval, Diana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Tucson basin experiences intermittent flooding events during its bimodal rain seasons. The development of the city’s infrastructure that has accompanied its increased urbanization is mostly dependent on grey infrastructure for storm water management that has been unsuccessful in slowing peak flows, recharging aquifers, and sustaining biogeochemical cycles that support habitat. A plan that focuses on an area of the south bank Rillito River, between N Craycroft Rd and N Swan Rd, will propose a series of green infrastructure strategies to manage ephemeral water flows. An investigation of hydrologically sensitive master plans in urban areas comparable to Tucson via literature review, ecological data, and the consideration of historical ecological and cultural history of the Tucson basin, will inform a design proposal that enhances biological diversity, supports economic development, enhances connectivity, and supports users’ well-being, within the urban context.

      CAMACHO-SERNA, MIGUEL (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Second City: An Urban Revitalization Plan for Colón, Panamá

      Hyson, Kendra (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      As the world shifts towards increased urbanization, issues of social inequity also begin to rise to the forefront, often affecting most critically those citizens who are economically disadvantaged. Areas in which there are fewer resources to defend against the negative impacts of rapid urban development tend to become a detriment to those citizens living in said areas. Such is the case with Panamá, a nation suffering from economic inequality post-rapid urbanization, much to the detriment of its citizens. Even with substantial economic growth over the last decade, Panamá still boast the second most unequal distribution of income in Latin America (Archibold 2013). The “high-value” service industries that dominate the Panamanian economy total an approximate 75-80% of the country’s annual $30 billion economy – an indication of a possibly thriving job market (Lilly and Associates, 2012). This places Panamá in a unique position to begin the mitigation of economic inequality. Colón, traditionally known as Panamá’s “Second City”, is home to the largest free trade zone in the Western Hemisphere, the Colón Free Zone (CFZ), and has been greatly impacted by this uneven distribution of wealth (U.S. Department of State 2015). Even with much emphasis on improving the CFZ, via talks of a new international airport and port expansion, little attention has been given to the city’s residents (Lilly and Associates 2012). Colón’s ideal Caribbean coastal location, beautiful tropical landscapes and historic architecture make it a prime location for trade, tourism and urban development, leaving no evident reason for the desertion currently being experienced by its citizens and landscape. The number of challenges facing Colón coupled with the city’s historic, cultural and economic significance have created a complex blend of contextual factors begging for exploration. Moreover, many of the problems in Colón deserve considerable analysis as it is in desperate need of revitalization. These challenges, problems and ongoing concerns, however, are far beyond the scope and depth of the time allotted for this master’s report. Nevertheless, this project intends to highlight some of the key components prohibiting Colón’s development, transforming those constraints into opportunities for growth. The focus of this master’s report is to investigate and conceptualize potential solutions to the issues plaguing Colón. Primarily, this report will examine what contributions landscape architectural strategies can provide to the city of Colón in helping increase quality of life for its citizens. Through cultural resilience strategies, green infrastructure, increased connectivity and sustainable tourism practices, the culminating design attempts to demonstrate how Colón can be restored to its former status as a bustling metropolis of tourism and trade.
    • The Sensory Garden Experience: A Sensory Enrichment Design for the Arizona School for the Deaf and Blind

      Pedersen, Christian; Blazquez, Oscar; Livingston, Margaret; Stoltz, Ron (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The focus of this master’s report was to examine the sensory garden experience - a comforting space that emphasizes the broad stimulation of all 5 of the user’s senses. Tucson’s beautiful Arizona School for the Deaf & Blind (ASDB) provides an education and sense of place for its students and community; moreover it serves as a cultural resource and center for Deaf culture and developing young minds. However the problem is that the campus truly lacks an outdoor space that unifies the campus as a whole and provides an enhanced sensory experience for its student body and populace. The intent of this master’s report was to develop a set of comprehensive guidelines and principles that designers will be able to use in the future to enhance the sensory experience for deaf and blind users. These guidelines have been applied towards the design of a master plan for the Arizona School for the Deaf and Blind located in Tucson, Arizona. The sensory garden serves as a means of providing students, faculty and guests with an opportunity to interact with the environment, engage in passive recreation, spaces for opportunistic meetings, the promotion of cultural awareness, and last it provides all of its users with a heightened sensory experience. This report has investigated: the various components of a sensory garden, the concept behind sensory designs, and how our senses interact in relation to spaces. The report also examined potential design standards used in DeafSpace and blind spaces, and last it examined sensory mapping and how its methods are involved in the design process.
    • Sensory Gardens for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Johnson, Lauri M; Wilson, Beverly Jean; Johnson, Lauri M (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      One of every 166 children born today could be diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (CDC 2006). Growing bodies of evidence show sensory integration issues may be at the root of many of the symptoms children with ASD exhibit. Sensory integration is defined as the ability to feel, understand, and organize sensory information from the body and environment. The issues surrounding sensory integration are reflected in both hypersensitive and hyposensitive reactions by children with ASD to the vestibular, proprioception, visual, audio, tactile, and olfactory senses.The goal of this paper is to address the sensory integration issues of children with ASD by creating a sensory garden which would allow them to focus on therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. By using the principles and elements of design, guidelines for this garden focused on producing calming effects for hyper reactive children with ASD and stimulating effects for hypo reactions.
    • Shading coefficients of six tree species in Tucson and their impact on annual energy loads

      McPherson, Gregory; Dougherty, Eileen, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      This study determined winter and summer shading coefficients for six commonly used landscape trees in Tucson using a photographic dot-matrix method. Tree types were developed from this data reflecting canopy density, shape, and foliage periods, then applied to SPS and MICROPAS computer programs to model effects of tree shade on annual energy loads for three residential construction types. Statistical analysis showed pruning to have a significant effect for 5 of the 6 species tested. Significant differences were also found among species and within species due to seasonal effects in foliage density. Shading scenarios manipulated the number and location of tree types were modeled. Greatest net annual savings were from 3 African sumac trees located on the west side of a masonry house typical of the 1950s (121). Shade from tree species found to have significantly different shading coefficients (10%) did not substantially increase energy savings ($5-12).
    • Site planning in Guadalajara architecture education: An exploratory study

      Gimblett, Howard R.; Vergara, Santiago (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      In recent years, the use of site planning in architecture has significantly increased. However, a large number of architecture schools in Mexico have not included this subject in their educational profile. This may strongly impact regions where there is an absence of city planning-related disciplines to cover this demand. This study explores how professionals, professors and students of architecture schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, perceive the importance of site planning in their profession and examines the potential of expanding these concepts in their curricula. This study found that site planning concepts and applications are considered essential knowledge for Guadalajara architects' education. Aso, a high potential for expanding site development issues, the use of systematic approaches, and the incorporation of tools was found.
    • THE SOLAR VISTA: Integrating solar energy into our neighborhood parks

      Livingston, Margaret; Johnson, Aaron (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Urban ecology emerged, in the 1970’s, as a response to the increasing reality of growing populations causing environmental and health problems of both urban and non-urban dwellers. As such, human settlements were acknowledged by ecologists as legitimate areas of ecological study. Almost 50 years later, great strides have been made to improve the ecology within our cities. This Masters Report looks to build upon past success by rethinking the implementation of sustainable practices into the urban fabric of a city. The report examines a contextually suburban park within Tucson, Arizona as an opportunity to better integrate and showcase the, increasingly popular and affordable, practice of harnessing solar energy. A review of literature and design projects was conducted to gain an understanding of ecological design principles, multi-functional solar sites, and educational features in public spaces. Site inventory and analysis revealed the existing condition of the site, as well as possible design limitations and opportunities. In response to the research and site assessment, design solutions were made to further progress the ecological practices within our public spaces.
    • Songs of Chansons D' Haute Ville: Strategies for resilience within a rural heritage landscape

      Cottrell-Crawford, Penelope (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Songs of Haute Ville is a culmination of my passions for heritage conservation, landscape architecture, and climate adaptation. The report will identify strategies to build physical and social resilience within a rural French heritage site called Haute Ville. The name means “high town” in French, as the site clings to a hill which overlooks the village of Puget-Ville in the valley below. The site is the original footprint of Puget-Ville, and it remains a wellspring of natural and cultural heritage resources for the town. Within the site's bounds are an 11th-century chapel, a 14th-century castle ruin, and footprints of the medieval village, all nestled within an dense pine-oak forest. In recent decades, the historic site has seen unprecedented damage from droughts and extreme weather impacting the hillside location. Major pathways have been rendered inaccessible due to landslides from eroded soils and rock-slides from destabilized masonry. This damage has impacted the site’s capacity to host visitors and events, which in turn has created ramifications for restoration and fundraising efforts. My Master’s Report will provide typologies for erosion mitigation and acoustic appreciation spaces; designs for re-vitalized entrance areas; and recommendations for native planting and alternative event programming. This project has ties to my personal heritage as well: my grandparents were live-in stewards of for almost four decades, until 2018. I have been fortunate to spend valuable time there throughout my life, exploring the lands, touching the stones, witnessing the hillsides change in wind and sun and rain. As such, has been a great pleasure to write this report, and to share it with my family, who are all intertwined with the site. Songs of Haute Ville aims to showcase strategies for the holistic protection of our shared global heritage. Heritage landscapes are much more than the built environment: they are comprised of the cultural talismans that exist in the ecologies and accumulated memories of the places we hold dear.
    • Southside Revival: A Research-based Design Approach to Revitalizing the 6th Avenue Corridor in South Tucson

      Livingston, Margaret; Kohen, Sol (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      South Tucson, Arizona faces a slew of challenges, poor public perception, and logistical issues having to do with poor funding of redevelopment. A need exists for small town revitalization plans, rooted in main street redesign along South Tucson’s 6th Avenue corridor. Investigation into community, business, and environmental make-up was conducted, along with analysis into how policy strategies, and design solutions can be implemented. Ultimately, city-wide master planning, with a main focus on streetscape improvement through high-profile public amenities, could foster a framework for private investment, and improved public image.