• Design-Build: A Cornerstone in the Education of Landscape Architecture

      Scott, Beth; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Ware, Charlie (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It is common for the education of architecture and landscape architecture to separate the technical (build) from the design (studio). Another line of thought is that in a well-rounded education in architecture and landscape architecture, couples design with the act of construction. This allows for a healthy balance from conceptualization to construction, which in turn, may foster stronger, integrated design skills. Familiarization with the construction process from materials and construction methods to budgeting and project management offers increased experience and understanding and can foster confidence and assurance crucial to decision making throughout academic and professional careers. This process can also lead to innovation and expansion of theory in the field due to the physical implementation and testing of ideas and concepts. As a growing number of architectural graduates are beginning their career and thriving in the design-build sector, this model of education is to evolve as a cornerstone in the curriculum of an architecture or landscape architecture program. This thesis explores the history, theory, and implementation of design-build education in the field of architecture and landscape architecture. Furthermore, an analysis is to be conducted on present day curriculum standards and previously conducted student and post-graduate surveys, as well as student and professional interviews. Based on research and reflections, a curriculum for a design-build studio within a school of landscape architecture is developed.
    • Theory and Design Considerations of a Saline Ecological Landscape: A constructive method to reduce brine waste volume

      Bresdin, Cylphine; Glenn, Ed; Scott, Beth; Blazquez, Oscar (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Pertinent abiotic and biotic factors and their interdependencies necessary to comprehend the ecology of saline systems are investigated and evaluated. A designed saline ecosystem is proposed as a constructive method to reduce waste volume. Landscape pattern is investigated as the vehicle for an evapotranspiration induced directional saline gradient. A demonstration site is used to explore conceptual design application of the idea of ecosystem pattern consisting of a linear sequence of ecotopes, each displaying its own ecological community in relation to salinity range and site context. Biota is relinquished to self-organization. Potential for research use of the ecosystem is illustrated.
    • The Environmental Aesthetic Appreciation of Cultural Landscapes

      Gorski, Andrew David; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In recent decades the canon of environmental aesthetics has expanded beyond its primary concern of understanding what is beautiful in the fine arts to the appreciation of natural and cultural landscapes. Corresponding with society's growing interest in conservation, environmental aesthetics has emerged as relevant to many conservation discussions. The preservation and interpretation of cultural landscapes is complicated by resources that are in a constant state of change. Traditional cultural landscape preservation practices have had mixed results. A focus on interpretation rather than preservation is generally considered a strategy for improving cultural landscape practices. Applying theories developed in the field of environmental aesthetics to cultural landscapes may lead to principles helpful to their preservation and interpretation. In this study, an environmental aesthetic framework is developed and applied to the Canoa Ranch, a historic property south of Tucson, Arizona, to evaluate the potential of using environmental aesthetics in appreciation of cultural landscapes.
    • Reclaiming Forgotten Corridors; An Urban Greenway System Utilizing Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, Arizona

      Livingston, Margaret; Lotze, Wendy; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Like many cities in the western United States, Tucson, Arizona, was developed on a geometrically determined grid system, with streets aligned with a preset north-south/east-west alignment that paid little heed to the area's natural features and topography. Through necessity, certain watercourses were maintained to help deal with the occasional and sometimes severe flood waters that converge upon the area - however, these features were hidden within, or in some cases under, the urban matrix. This study seeks to examine how secondary watercourses can be partnered with other open space features to create a regional greenway system that connects desirable destinations throughout the city. Special focus is placed upon identification of public open spaces and amenities as destinations. Through the integration of destination-based design, greenway experiences become more rewarding and thus more valuable to the user, motivating preservation of these corridors which would ultimately benefit both the community and the natural environment.
    • Indeterminacy, the I Ching, and John Cage: A New Design Method for Landscape Architecture

      Morse, Barry Ray; Macmilllan Johnson, Lauri; Blazquez, Oscar; Ivey, Paul E. (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      The creative use of indeterminacy (i.e. "chance") is an often overlooked design opportunity despite the universality of chance in art, nature, science and life. How can "chance", a seemingly capricious phenomenon be made to work for someone? One controlled use of chance is through the Chinese I Ching "chance operations" method of composer and artist John Cage (1912-1992). This thesis addresses the questions of how one might approach using this method in landscape architectural design, what would be the outcome of such an indeterminate design and whether or not it could lead to a constructed landscape. In addition, this thesis will answer the question: what is the relationship between the I Ching, John Cage and the constructed landscape, anyway? The final product of this thesis will be a new redesign of an existing plaza using Cage's techniques and a comparative evaluation among the new indeterminate concept and two preexisting designs using the original plaza program objectives as a guide against which the three designs can be judged for effectiveness.
    • Documenting Deforestation at Sidd al-Ahmar, Petra Region, Jordan

      Addison, Erin Heather; Livingston, Margaret; Kim, Mintai; Blazquez, Oscar; Hasanat, Majed (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study documented the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sidd al-Ahmar, within the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2006. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, and a decline of 4.23% between 2003-2006. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region.
    • Sensory Gardens for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Johnson, Lauri M; Wilson, Beverly Jean; Johnson, Lauri M (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      One of every 166 children born today could be diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (CDC 2006). Growing bodies of evidence show sensory integration issues may be at the root of many of the symptoms children with ASD exhibit. Sensory integration is defined as the ability to feel, understand, and organize sensory information from the body and environment. The issues surrounding sensory integration are reflected in both hypersensitive and hyposensitive reactions by children with ASD to the vestibular, proprioception, visual, audio, tactile, and olfactory senses.The goal of this paper is to address the sensory integration issues of children with ASD by creating a sensory garden which would allow them to focus on therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. By using the principles and elements of design, guidelines for this garden focused on producing calming effects for hyper reactive children with ASD and stimulating effects for hypo reactions.
    • Integrating Pedestrian Needs and Bird Habitat in Trial Design Along Secondary Watercourses in Tucson, AZ

      Patton, Jennifer Louise (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Assessment of semi-natural landscapes in urban areas for habitat and human recreation has greater relevance as natural open space around cities disappears. Secondary watercourses can potentially serve as urban wildlife habitat and provide trail networks connecting to the urban mosaic and nearby natural areas. These areas also could extend bird watching into urban areas, an activity that is significantly increasing. This study focused on compatibility of bird habitat with a pedestrian greenway along a secondary watercourse in Tucson, AZ. Creating native bird habitat was emphasized due to the decreasing numbers of native species in Tucson’s urban core. The following question was addressed: What are the most significant criteria for creating native bird habitat and how can these be integrated with a pedestrian trail appropriate for secondary watercourses in Tucson? Guidelines integrating trail design and bird habitat were developed. These guidelines serve to guide future trail and habitat planning along undeveloped secondary watercourses in this region.
    • Evaluating Recreational Access on Ranching Lands in Southeastern Arizona

      Penati, Elizabeth S.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Randy; Anderson, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2005)
    • A Study of Impact of Urbanization on Ephemeral Streams in Headwater Watersheds in Eastern Pima County, AZ.

      Kumazawa, Naoto.; Kim, Mintai; Livingston, Margaret; Lopes, Vicente; Nichols, Mary H. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      In this study, the impact of urbanization on ephemeral streams in arid environments was assessed by comparing eight small headwater watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in Tucson, Arizona. Chronological change in urbanization, stream network, and downstream channel width were observed, employing GIS, orthophotos over thirty years, and field measurements. A decrease in drainage density caused by urbanization and a decrease in channel width were found in many study sites. The relationship between the chronological change in downstream channel width and the urbanization pattern in the watersheds was assessed using an index named Stream Based Urbanization Index that indicates spatial distribution of urbanization in watersheds in relation to streams. Based on the comparison of seven Index factors, a lower rate of decrease in channel width was observed in the watersheds with a higher urbanization, especially with a higher concentration of urbanization near streams among the general trend of channel narrowing.
    • Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.
    • Assessing Ecological Design Principles as They Relate to Sustainability in Neighborhoods of Tucson, Arizona.

      Bass, Beverly J.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Howard R.; Yoklic, Martin R. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Within urban areas, ecological design practices, as they relate to sustainability, are often employed to balance the needs of human and natural ecosystems. Older communities typically incorporated sustainable practices such as tightly clustered, multiuse development patterns, water harvesting and the use of vegetation to shade structures because technologies to overcome climate and travel limitations did not exist when they were built. During the twentieth century, technology advancements and changes in development patterns have contributed to a decreased emphasis on these practices. This study assessed neighborhoods of various ages in Tucson, AZ to determine what trends towards or away from ecological design practices exist in the area. Results of this study indicate that newer neighborhoods in Tucson exhibited fewer indicators of ecological design than did older neighborhoods, suggesting that ecological concerns may have played a diminishing role in the design of Tucson neighborhoods over time.
    • Changes in riparian vegetation following release of reclaimed effluent water into the Santa Cruz River: As a corollary, the effects of channelization on vegetation in the Santa Cruz River

      Livingston, Margaret M.; Gormally, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Recharge has been conducted very efficiently for twenty-five years near Roger and Ina roads along the Santa Cruz River using reclaimed water. This project seeks to determine the composition of river vegetation due to the release of the reclaimed water, and as a corollary, to examine the effects of channelization on the vegetation of the Santa Cruz River. Using belt and line transects the vegetation along the Santa Cruz River was surveyed. Treatment with effluent was found to increase plant density, diversity, richness, cover, and incidence of exotic plants. Channelization was found to increase only plant richness and incidence of exotic plants. Furthermore, effluent encouraged the growth of tree plant types while channelization discouraged such growth. Recommendations were made regarding future release of effluent into the Santa Cruz River and future attempts to restore the once prolific, willow-cottonwood forests and mesquite forests.
    • Relationship between remnant size and plant species richness in the Tucson urban matrix

      Livingston, Margaret; Duncan, Allison B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      The Sonoran Desert surrounding Tucson, Arizona is the dominant matrix in a region undergoing a transition from desert matrix to urban matrix with little emphasis placed on preserving this native ecosystem intact. Instead, patches of desert, remnants, are cut off the desert matrix and surrounded by a variety of land uses including residential, transit, and commercial. 31 sites within the City of Tucson were surveyed and the site's plant species richness, woody cover, herbaceous cover, and disturbance percentage measured. The plants found on-site were classified into native or exotic, annual or perennial, and woody or herbaceous, and further broken down into growth form. Results indicated a significant correlation between a site's area and its percent disturbance, as well as correlations between its native vegetation and area.
    • SUB-CULTURAL PREFERENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN FORESTS IN AGUA PRIETA, SONORA, MEXICO

      Pena-Mayoral, Luis Gerardo (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Techniques for improving established golf courses: Restoration, renovation, and redesign. An improvement plan for the Meadow Club (Fairfax, California)

      Livingston, Margaret; Thawley, Mark Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This study clearly defines and identifies the difference between the terms, restoration, renovation and redesign. In order to understand characteristics found on golf courses built in different eras, the history of golf course architecture has also been summarized. Research was gathered from eight courses that have recently completed some type of improvement project or that are currently undergoing improvements. The results show that the process of improving golf courses built before World War II differs considerably from improving those built after the War. Through neglect the former have lost many unique design characteristics and are therefore worthy of restoration. Based on the results of this study, key factors for successful restoration have been identified and applied to the Meadow Club, a course that is currently planning improvements. Built in 1927 the Meadow Club was originally designed by legendary golf architect, Alister Mackenzie.
    • Factors associated with the development and implementation of master plans for botanical gardens

      Livingston, Margaret; Mielcarek, Laura Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The role of master plans at botanical gardens was studied for the purpose of identifying particular characteristics in successful master plan implementation. Twenty existing master plans were analyzed to provide background information about typical content, format, and professionals involved with development of master plans. In addition, fifty surveys were conducted with Directors of botanical gardens and arboreta. Twenty questions were posed to the Directors to define the extent of master plan implementation (i.e. use) at the garden and to identify the factors that affect implementation. Log-likelihood ratio tests (G tests) were performed to evaluate the data. Eighty-eight percent of the institutions surveyed reported that they implement a master plan at the garden. Significant relationships were observed between use of the master plan and the following factors: hiring a landscape architecture firm; involvement of staff, Boards of Directors, and the community; and inclusion of key sections, graphics, and the institution's mission statement. Based on these results, guidelines for master plan development and implementation are presented.