• Accessibility for persons with mobility impairments in Sabino Canyon Recreation Area's Upper Canyon

      Havens, William H.; Steward, Shirley Kathleen, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      This thesis discusses accessibility issues for persons with mobility restrictions visiting Sabino Canyon Recreation Area's Upper Canyon near Tucson, Arizona. A shuttle bus from the Visitor Center area provides the only motorized access into the Canyon interior. Designated shuttle stop areas are inaccessible, preventing some individuals with mobility problems from extending their time in the natural setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physical inaccessibility at the shuttle stops and provide design recommendations to improve access appropriate to the natural setting, using proposed guidelines which are being considered by the USDA Forest Service, Sabino's managing agency, for its outdoor recreation areas. The methods used were an evaluation of each shuttle stop area and application of the proposed guidelines to assign accessibility accommodation levels to each shuttle stop. Recommended modifications within each level are given. Conceptual plans for two shuttle stop areas and detailed drawings for facility accessibility are provided. A review of literature on human preferences and psychological benefits associated with natural environments, the impacts of physical disabilities, and accessibility legislation and standards is included.
    • Applications of environment-behavior-design research to planned communities

      Zube, Ervin H.; McCormick, Bailie Grant, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      This study addresses and evaluates the use of Environment-Behavior-Design (E-B-D) research in planned community practice in greater Pima County, using the specific plan approach. The research uses two methods; (1) a review of planning documents; and (2) interviews with planners. The results suggest that very little E-B-D research use has occurred in specific plans, although respondents were supportive of E-B-D research. Recommendations are made for improving research applications and for appropriate subjects for E-B-D research on planned communities.
    • Assessing Ecological Design Principles as They Relate to Sustainability in Neighborhoods of Tucson, Arizona.

      Bass, Beverly J.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Howard R.; Yoklic, Martin R. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Within urban areas, ecological design practices, as they relate to sustainability, are often employed to balance the needs of human and natural ecosystems. Older communities typically incorporated sustainable practices such as tightly clustered, multiuse development patterns, water harvesting and the use of vegetation to shade structures because technologies to overcome climate and travel limitations did not exist when they were built. During the twentieth century, technology advancements and changes in development patterns have contributed to a decreased emphasis on these practices. This study assessed neighborhoods of various ages in Tucson, AZ to determine what trends towards or away from ecological design practices exist in the area. Results of this study indicate that newer neighborhoods in Tucson exhibited fewer indicators of ecological design than did older neighborhoods, suggesting that ecological concerns may have played a diminishing role in the design of Tucson neighborhoods over time.
    • Botanical gardens : the influence of Islam, arid lands, and water in the Middle East

      Sellers, Catherine Clabby; Havens, W. H.; Deeter, M. T.; Jones, W. D. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The concept of the botanical garden can be traced to ancient times. The idea of the 'garden as paradise', the 'garden as orchard' and the 'chahar bagh' are part of the Persian culture, dating to 6000 B.C.. Mesopotamia is the supposed location of Eden, the oldest garden of the world. To determine the design criteria most suitable for a new botanical garden to be located in the Middle Fast, a study is required of: botanical garden history, the religious and cultural aspects of Islam which have formed design-rules for gardens , features common to arid lands, and water as a finite resource. The purpose of this study is to determine criteria for a botanical garden most suitable to the conditions of the Middle East in general, Kuwait in particular, and to identify those criteria in terms of the public benefits of recreation, education, conservation and enhancement of religious experience.
    • Categories of elderly experience in the landscape

      Wilkin, Donovan C.; Doxtater, Rebecca Jo, 1944- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Aspects of landscape experience by the elderly are explored. An understanding of this user group is sought through investigation of stereotypes, personality traits, psyco-social, and physical aspects of aging. A construct of use categories provides a system for understanding the environment in terms of what it is perceived to provide its users. Use categories include wayfinding, human territoriality, cultural expression, visual and non-visual aesthetics, and task performance. Drawing from literature and research in many areas, each of these categories is first defined in general terms. Each is then surveyed relative to its more specific application to the elderly which is followed by an examination of each category as it relates to the elderly and landscape. Application of categories to site analysis, programming, design, post-occupancy evaluations, and research is proposed. Some landscape design implications for the elderly are noted along with areas for further research.
    • Changes in riparian vegetation following release of reclaimed effluent water into the Santa Cruz River: As a corollary, the effects of channelization on vegetation in the Santa Cruz River

      Livingston, Margaret M.; Gormally, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Recharge has been conducted very efficiently for twenty-five years near Roger and Ina roads along the Santa Cruz River using reclaimed water. This project seeks to determine the composition of river vegetation due to the release of the reclaimed water, and as a corollary, to examine the effects of channelization on the vegetation of the Santa Cruz River. Using belt and line transects the vegetation along the Santa Cruz River was surveyed. Treatment with effluent was found to increase plant density, diversity, richness, cover, and incidence of exotic plants. Channelization was found to increase only plant richness and incidence of exotic plants. Furthermore, effluent encouraged the growth of tree plant types while channelization discouraged such growth. Recommendations were made regarding future release of effluent into the Santa Cruz River and future attempts to restore the once prolific, willow-cottonwood forests and mesquite forests.
    • A confluence of thinking: The influence of 20th century art history on American landscape architecture

      Havens, William; White, Steven Robert (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Since beginning my graduate studies in landscape architecture, I have encountered many situations in class in which references to art were used. I discovered a connection in the usage of the jargon of art in landscape architecture study. People, for the most part, do not know what landscape architects do or who we are. In this thesis I will make the case for aligning the profession of landscape architecture with the fine arts and humanities. An art history component in the curriculum and education and training of landscape architects would augment their design and presentation skills in the workplace. I have included the results of a survey questionnaire that I sent to 65 landscape architecture teaching faculty representing 38 landscape architecture programs in the United States. These individuals held either a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, a Master of Fine Arts degree, or they had a scholarly research interest in art.
    • A critical analysis of the plans for the preservation of four Templer colonies in Israel

      Zube, Ervin; Golan, Ya'acov, 1948- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      In view of the pressures accompanying modern life and population growth, there is great need and importance in the preservation of historic sites, which can create balance between the past and future and strengthen the sense of stability and cultural continuity. This study critically analyzes plans for preservation and development of four of the seven colonies which were founded in Palestine in the 19th century by the German Templers who immigrated because of religious convictions. The history of the group and their contribution to the development of Palestine are described, as are the present condition of the colonies. Criteria for critical analysis of preservation plans which drawn from existing laws in the modern state of Israel, international charters, and interviews with people connected to the colonies in one way or another. The conclusions from this analysis show that only one plan fits the criteria.
    • Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores

      Johnson, Lauri Macmillan; Schaefer, Renee (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Determining the criteria and then evaluating schoolyard environments is a challenge due to the myriad aspects of what may constitute successful design of schoolyards. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.
    • Design variables and the success of outdoor neighborhood recreational facilities

      Havens, William H.; Chapman, Gary Allen, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Today, park use is at an all-time high with the number of city parks increasing at a growing rate each year. Designing a successful outdoor neighborhood recreational facility insures that the surrounding population has an enjoyable, safe, and lasting space to recreate. This study properly illustrates the process in designing a successful neighborhood park. A demographic analysis, conducted in Southern California's Coachella Valley, identified three neighborhood parks as ideal study sites. Likewise, the review of existing literature, site observations, and the analysis of a carefully designed survey developed the appropriate methodology in meeting the intent of this study. As author, I wish to stress the importance of process. If the designer of a neighborhood facility is to meet the recreational goals of any community, he or she must first take action in understanding the appropriate process. Once this understanding is achieved, effective design guidelines may then be developed.
    • Design-Build: A Cornerstone in the Education of Landscape Architecture

      Scott, Beth; Stoltz, Ron; Livingston, Margaret; Ware, Charlie (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      It is common for the education of architecture and landscape architecture to separate the technical (build) from the design (studio). Another line of thought is that in a well-rounded education in architecture and landscape architecture, couples design with the act of construction. This allows for a healthy balance from conceptualization to construction, which in turn, may foster stronger, integrated design skills. Familiarization with the construction process from materials and construction methods to budgeting and project management offers increased experience and understanding and can foster confidence and assurance crucial to decision making throughout academic and professional careers. This process can also lead to innovation and expansion of theory in the field due to the physical implementation and testing of ideas and concepts. As a growing number of architectural graduates are beginning their career and thriving in the design-build sector, this model of education is to evolve as a cornerstone in the curriculum of an architecture or landscape architecture program. This thesis explores the history, theory, and implementation of design-build education in the field of architecture and landscape architecture. Furthermore, an analysis is to be conducted on present day curriculum standards and previously conducted student and post-graduate surveys, as well as student and professional interviews. Based on research and reflections, a curriculum for a design-build studio within a school of landscape architecture is developed.
    • The development of travel guide specifications to increase the awareness of landscape architecture and natural resource management

      Havens, William H.; Davis, Sarah Lee, 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The problem addressed is the public's lack of awareness of the contributions of landscape architects and other natural resource professionals to the practices of land stewardship. One solution is a travel guide to be developed using marketing and interpretive principles. The research question is: what should be the content of the travel guide such that it would increase public awareness about landscape architecture and related natural resource professions and their role in land stewardship? The scope included research for planning the guide: it excluded collection of specific project information. A questionnaire was administered to landscape architects at two professional meetings. The major findings include which topics best explain the profession, and the types of projects that should be selected. These findings are valuable to natural resource professional societies and to publishing industry marketers, and for use in pursuing grant funding to continue the guide's development.
    • Documenting Deforestation at Sidd al-Ahmar, Petra Region, Jordan

      Addison, Erin Heather; Livingston, Margaret; Kim, Mintai; Blazquez, Oscar; Hasanat, Majed (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study documented the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sidd al-Ahmar, within the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2006. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, and a decline of 4.23% between 2003-2006. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region.
    • THE EFFECTS OF PROPORTION AND VEGETATIVE DENSITY ON THE VISUAL QUALITY OF URBAN OPEN SPACE

      Trauth, Patricia Mary, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
    • The Environmental Aesthetic Appreciation of Cultural Landscapes

      Gorski, Andrew David; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Macmillan Johnson, Lauri (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In recent decades the canon of environmental aesthetics has expanded beyond its primary concern of understanding what is beautiful in the fine arts to the appreciation of natural and cultural landscapes. Corresponding with society's growing interest in conservation, environmental aesthetics has emerged as relevant to many conservation discussions. The preservation and interpretation of cultural landscapes is complicated by resources that are in a constant state of change. Traditional cultural landscape preservation practices have had mixed results. A focus on interpretation rather than preservation is generally considered a strategy for improving cultural landscape practices. Applying theories developed in the field of environmental aesthetics to cultural landscapes may lead to principles helpful to their preservation and interpretation. In this study, an environmental aesthetic framework is developed and applied to the Canoa Ranch, a historic property south of Tucson, Arizona, to evaluate the potential of using environmental aesthetics in appreciation of cultural landscapes.
    • Evaluating Recreational Access on Ranching Lands in Southeastern Arizona

      Penati, Elizabeth S.; Livingston, Margaret; Gimblett, Randy; Anderson, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2005)
    • Evaluation of irrigation practices on the quality of turfgrass playfields in southwestern elementary schools

      Abel, Robert Harlan.; Havens, W. H.; Wilkin, D. C.; Mancino, C. F. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not sprinkler irrigation performance could be used as an indicator for turf quality and water conservation potential in southwestern elementary schools. Soil fertility, turfgrass visual quality and playing quality of seven elementary school playfields in Tucson, Arizona was assessed. Irrigation system performance was evaluated using the Water Resource Manager software. Maintenance regimes were evaluated for effectiveness in producing quality turf. Sprinkler distribution uniformity (D.U) was a function of effective turf management. Overuse put impossible demands on elementary school turf maintenance functions, the most critical of which was irrigation management. Good D.U. alone did not predict conservation potential nor did it indicate turf quality. While a qualified irrigation manager can use creative methods to conserve water even with a poorly designed system, conservation potential is lost when an unqualified manager is making irrigation decisions.