Browsing Tree-Ring Research, Vol. 60, No. 1 (2004) by Title
Now showing items 2-5 of 5
Dendroclimatic Analysis of White Spruce at its Southern Limit of Distribution in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park, Manitoba, CanadaWe examined the radial growth - climate association of a disjunct population of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at its southern limit of distribution. Forty-four white spruce tree islands were sampled over four mixed-grass prairie preserves in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park located in the forestprairie boundary of southwestern Manitoba. Reduced radial growth occurred during the 1910s, 1930s, early 1960s, and the late 1970s to the early 1980s and corresponded to periods of drought on the Canadian prairies, and the Great Plains of the United States. Correlation and response function coefficients indicated that conditions in the summer and fall of the previous year (t-1), and the summer of the current year (t) strongly influenced white spruce growth. Growth was positively correlated with August-September (t-1) and May-June-July (t) precipitation and moisture index (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). Radial growth was positively associated with June-July-August (t) river discharge. Growth was most correlated with maximum and mean temperature compared with minimum temperature. Precipitation and maximum temperature accounted for the greatest variation in radial growth (61%). The results suggest that white spruce growth is sensitive to climatic fluctuations because growth is restricted by moisture deficiency exacerbated by temperature-induced drought stress.
Dendroglaciological Evidence for a Neoglacial Advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier, Banff National Park, Canadian Rocky MountainsSeventeen glacially sheared stumps in growth position and abundant detrital wood fragments were exposed by stream avulsion at the terminus of the Saskatchewan Glacier in 1999. The stumps lay buried beneath the glacier and over 5 m of glacial sediment until historical recession and stream incision exposed the 225- to 262-year-old stand of subalpine fir, Englemann spruce and whitebark pine trees. Crossdating and construction of two radiocarbon-controlled floating tree-ring chronologies showed that all the subfossil stumps and boles exposed at this location were killed during a Neoglacial advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier 2,910 ± 60 to 2,730 ± 60 ¹⁴C years B.P. These findings support the Peyto Advance as a regional glaciological response to changing mass balance conditions.
Radial Growth of Oak and Aspen Near a Coal-Fired Station, Manitoba, CanadaEighteen stands of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were sampled and analyzed using dendrochronological methods to study the potential effects on tree growth of emissions from a 132 MW coal-fired generating station. Sixteen stands were sampled within a 16-km radius of the station, and two control stands were sampled outside of the range of influence, at distances . 40 km. All stands showed similar radial growth patterns from 1960-2001, regardless of distance from or direction relative to the generating station, and a number of stands, including the controls, had below average growth after 1970. Both species were significantly affected by climatic factors, showing decreased radial growth with increasing June temperature. The species differed in their growth responses to spring precipitation and temperature in the previous October. One bur oak site displayed marked radial growth decline beginning in the mid-1970s, strongly pronounced following 1977. This decline does not appear to be related to emissions from the station, but is suspected to be a result of poor site conditions (shallow soil developed over calcareous till), confounded by a change in drainage (a road was built adjacent to the stand in 1977, perpendicular to the direction of drainage). The below average growth seen in 1970-2001 across most stands is likely attributable to stand dynamics and age effects.
Tree-Ring Studies on Agathis Australis (Kauri): A Synthesis of Development Work on Late Holocene ChronologiesThe potential of kauri (Agathis australis) for paleoclimate research is well established. Multiple treering chronologies have been derived from living and sub-fossil material and growth-climate relationships have been identified. Work has progressed to the stage where raw ring-width data and chronologies covering the last half of the second millennium can confidently be placed in the public domain, to facilitate multiproxy paleoclimate studies. This paper outlines progress in deriving kauri tree-ring chronologies, summarises data availability and quality, and explores the scope for developing composite chronologies. Statistical quality control of the available data was undertaken, following application of an "optimum" standardisation technique. Variations in sample depth with time and between sites result in a complex evolving pattern of chronology quality across sites. Analysis of inter-site statistical relationships identified a pervasive regionalscale signal in kauri with some minor secondary patterns. In light of the strong common signal, a kauri master chronology was built by pooling tree-ring series. Analysis of the quality of this chronology indicates that high-quality master chronologies can be derived for A.D. 1597-1996 from as few as 25 trees from seven sites.