• Effects of Pandora Moth Outbreaks on Ponderosa Pine Wood Volume

      Speer, James H.; Holmes, Richard L.; Department of Geography, Geology and Anthropology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Tree-Ring Society, 2004)
      Coloradia pandora (Blake) is a phytophagous insect that defoliates Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Laws.) in south-central Oregon. Little is known about the extent of damage this insect inflicts upon its host trees during an outbreak. In this paper, we present stem analyses on four dominant Pinus ponderosa trees that enable us to determine the amount of volume lost during each Coloradia pandora outbreak on this site for the past 450 years. We found that on average an outbreak inhibits radial growth so that an individual tree produces 0.057 m³ less wood volume than the potential growth for the duration of an individual outbreak. A total of 0.549 m³ of growth per tree was inhibited by 10 outbreaks during the lifetime of the trees, which, in this stand, equates to 9.912 m³/ha (1,700 board feet/acre) of wood suppressed over the last 450 years throughout the stand. Our results do not support previous findings of a lag in suppression onset between the canopy of the tree versus the base. Crossdating of stem analysis samples is paramount to definitively examine the potential for a lagged response throughout the
    • Using a Simulation Model to Compare Methods of Tree-Ring Detrending and to Investigate the Detectability of Low-Frequency Signals

      Bunn, Andrew G.; Sharac, Timothy J.; Graumlich, Lisa J.; The Big Sky Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (Tree-Ring Society, 2004)
      We use a simulation model to generate tree-ring like data with systematic growth forcings and subject it to two methods of standardization: Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) and Negative Exponential Curve Standardization (NECS). The coherency between very low frequency forcings (hundreds of years) and the chronologies was higher when RCS was used to detrend the component series. There was no difference between standardization methods at decadal or annual time scales. We found that the detectability of systematic forcings was heavily dependent on amplitude and wavelength of the input signal as well as the number of trees simulated. These results imply that for very long tree-ring chronologies where the analyst is interested in low-frequency variability, RCS is a better method for detrending series if the requirements for that method can be met. However, in the majority of situations NECS is an acceptable detrending method. Most critically, we found that multi-centennial signals can be recovered using both methods.