Tree-Ring Research, Volume 60 (2004)
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
Tree-Ring Research is the peer-reviewed journal of the Tree Ring Society. The journal was first published in 1934 under the title Tree-Ring Bulletin. In 2001, the title changed to Tree-Ring Research.
Issues from 1934–2006 are freely available on the publications section of the Tree-Ring Society website. The Tree-Ring Society and the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona partnered with the University Libraries to re-digitize back issues for improved searching capabilities and long-term preservation.
Contact the Editor of Tree-Ring Research at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Collections in this community
The Bibliography of Dendrochronology and the Glossary of Dendrochronology: Two New Online Tools for Tree-Ring Research(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)Two new online products are available to the international tree-ring community. The Bibliography of Dendrochronology (published online in February 2003) currently has 10,000 references and is the world’s largest online bibliography specializing in tree-ring research. In March 2004, the Glossary of Dendrochronology was made available and is a searchable database of 351 terms and definitions in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. Both databases result from the collaboration of numerous tree-ring scientists worldwide.
Dendrochronological Dating of an Antebellum Period House, Forsyth County, Georgia, U.S.A.(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)We examined tree rings from cross-sections of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) timbers extracted from a house in Forsyth County, Georgia, that was reportedly built in the mid-19th Century during the Antebellum Period (pre-1860). Our goals were to (1) determine the probable construction year for the house to help assess its possible historical significance, and (2) create a new long-term reference chronology for the northern Georgia area where such chronologies are lacking. Sections of shortleaf pine were removed from the structure during a renovation project in 2001. Sixteen sections were used to build a floating tree-ring chronology 217 years in length from series that crossdated conclusively with other series both graphically via skeleton plots and statistically via COFECHA. We then statistically evaluated the probable absolute temporal placement of this chronology using several regional tree-ring chronologies from the southeastern U.S. A statistically significant (p , 0.0001) correlation between our chronology and a shortleaf pine chronology from Clemson, South Carolina, anchors our chronology between 1652–1868. Two missing rings are probable in the early portion of our chronology, but we currently do not have a sufficient number of samples to conclusively identify their exact placement. No cluster of outermost rings was found to support the reported construction date of 1851, although the outermost rings on 13 of 16 samples dated before 1851. This new chronology could aid further dating of wood from archaeological sites and historical structures, and establish an initial data set that could eventually provide important new insights about the climate of northern Georgia during the 17th–19th Centuries.
Using a Simulation Model to Compare Methods of Tree-Ring Detrending and to Investigate the Detectability of Low-Frequency Signals(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)We use a simulation model to generate tree-ring like data with systematic growth forcings and subject it to two methods of standardization: Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) and Negative Exponential Curve Standardization (NECS). The coherency between very low frequency forcings (hundreds of years) and the chronologies was higher when RCS was used to detrend the component series. There was no difference between standardization methods at decadal or annual time scales. We found that the detectability of systematic forcings was heavily dependent on amplitude and wavelength of the input signal as well as the number of trees simulated. These results imply that for very long tree-ring chronologies where the analyst is interested in low-frequency variability, RCS is a better method for detrending series if the requirements for that method can be met. However, in the majority of situations NECS is an acceptable detrending method. Most critically, we found that multi-centennial signals can be recovered using both methods.
Effects of Pandora Moth Outbreaks on Ponderosa Pine Wood Volume(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)Coloradia pandora (Blake) is a phytophagous insect that defoliates Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Laws.) in south-central Oregon. Little is known about the extent of damage this insect inflicts upon its host trees during an outbreak. In this paper, we present stem analyses on four dominant Pinus ponderosa trees that enable us to determine the amount of volume lost during each Coloradia pandora outbreak on this site for the past 450 years. We found that on average an outbreak inhibits radial growth so that an individual tree produces 0.057 m³ less wood volume than the potential growth for the duration of an individual outbreak. A total of 0.549 m³ of growth per tree was inhibited by 10 outbreaks during the lifetime of the trees, which, in this stand, equates to 9.912 m³/ha (1,700 board feet/acre) of wood suppressed over the last 450 years throughout the stand. Our results do not support previous findings of a lag in suppression onset between the canopy of the tree versus the base. Crossdating of stem analysis samples is paramount to definitively examine the potential for a lagged response throughout the
Dendroglaciological Evidence for a Neoglacial Advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier, Banff National Park, Canadian Rocky Mountains(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)Seventeen glacially sheared stumps in growth position and abundant detrital wood fragments were exposed by stream avulsion at the terminus of the Saskatchewan Glacier in 1999. The stumps lay buried beneath the glacier and over 5 m of glacial sediment until historical recession and stream incision exposed the 225- to 262-year-old stand of subalpine fir, Englemann spruce and whitebark pine trees. Crossdating and construction of two radiocarbon-controlled floating tree-ring chronologies showed that all the subfossil stumps and boles exposed at this location were killed during a Neoglacial advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier 2,910 ± 60 to 2,730 ± 60 ¹⁴C years B.P. These findings support the Peyto Advance as a regional glaciological response to changing mass balance conditions.
Radial Growth of Oak and Aspen Near a Coal-Fired Station, Manitoba, Canada(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)Eighteen stands of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were sampled and analyzed using dendrochronological methods to study the potential effects on tree growth of emissions from a 132 MW coal-fired generating station. Sixteen stands were sampled within a 16-km radius of the station, and two control stands were sampled outside of the range of influence, at distances . 40 km. All stands showed similar radial growth patterns from 1960-2001, regardless of distance from or direction relative to the generating station, and a number of stands, including the controls, had below average growth after 1970. Both species were significantly affected by climatic factors, showing decreased radial growth with increasing June temperature. The species differed in their growth responses to spring precipitation and temperature in the previous October. One bur oak site displayed marked radial growth decline beginning in the mid-1970s, strongly pronounced following 1977. This decline does not appear to be related to emissions from the station, but is suspected to be a result of poor site conditions (shallow soil developed over calcareous till), confounded by a change in drainage (a road was built adjacent to the stand in 1977, perpendicular to the direction of drainage). The below average growth seen in 1970-2001 across most stands is likely attributable to stand dynamics and age effects.
Dendroclimatic Analysis of White Spruce at its Southern Limit of Distribution in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park, Manitoba, Canada(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)We examined the radial growth - climate association of a disjunct population of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at its southern limit of distribution. Forty-four white spruce tree islands were sampled over four mixed-grass prairie preserves in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park located in the forestprairie boundary of southwestern Manitoba. Reduced radial growth occurred during the 1910s, 1930s, early 1960s, and the late 1970s to the early 1980s and corresponded to periods of drought on the Canadian prairies, and the Great Plains of the United States. Correlation and response function coefficients indicated that conditions in the summer and fall of the previous year (t-1), and the summer of the current year (t) strongly influenced white spruce growth. Growth was positively correlated with August-September (t-1) and May-June-July (t) precipitation and moisture index (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). Radial growth was positively associated with June-July-August (t) river discharge. Growth was most correlated with maximum and mean temperature compared with minimum temperature. Precipitation and maximum temperature accounted for the greatest variation in radial growth (61%). The results suggest that white spruce growth is sensitive to climatic fluctuations because growth is restricted by moisture deficiency exacerbated by temperature-induced drought stress.
Tree-Ring Studies on Agathis Australis (Kauri): A Synthesis of Development Work on Late Holocene Chronologies(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)The potential of kauri (Agathis australis) for paleoclimate research is well established. Multiple treering chronologies have been derived from living and sub-fossil material and growth-climate relationships have been identified. Work has progressed to the stage where raw ring-width data and chronologies covering the last half of the second millennium can confidently be placed in the public domain, to facilitate multiproxy paleoclimate studies. This paper outlines progress in deriving kauri tree-ring chronologies, summarises data availability and quality, and explores the scope for developing composite chronologies. Statistical quality control of the available data was undertaken, following application of an "optimum" standardisation technique. Variations in sample depth with time and between sites result in a complex evolving pattern of chronology quality across sites. Analysis of inter-site statistical relationships identified a pervasive regionalscale signal in kauri with some minor secondary patterns. In light of the strong common signal, a kauri master chronology was built by pooling tree-ring series. Analysis of the quality of this chronology indicates that high-quality master chronologies can be derived for A.D. 1597-1996 from as few as 25 trees from seven sites.
Climate-Growth Relationships for Native and Nonnative Pinaceae in Northern Michigan's Pine Barrens(Tree-Ring Society, 2004)Secondary growth responses of native and nonnative trees exposed to the same climatic conditions can elucidate sensitivities and thus adaptability to a particular region. A long-term mixed-species planting in the pine barrens of northern lower Michigan presented an opportunity to discriminate responses from species commonly planted in this region. Mean ring-width chronologies from living native Pinus resinosa Ait. and P. strobus L. and nonnative P. sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. at this plantation were generated, standardized, and analyzed by correlation analysis against mean monthly climatic variables. The native pine chronologies had the highest mean ring widths and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), were highly correlated to each other, and exhibited positive responses to years with above-normal April temperatures but no significant relationships to variations in precipitation. The P. sylvestris chronology was highly correlated to the other two pine chronologies and responded similarly to April temperatures but exhibited negative correlations to January and April precipitation and positive correlations to September precipitation. The P. abies chronology had the highest mean sensitivity and was correlated with the P. strobus chronology but only responded positively to precipitation from the previous December. The low SNR (P. sylvestris, P. abies), high mean sensitivity (P. abies), and larger number of significant correlations to variations in monthly climatic variables (P. sylvestris) suggest that these nonnative species are more sensitive to this local climate. These results provide insights to the adaptability, establishment, and geographic distribution of the nonnative Pinaceae.