Tonto National Monument was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on December 19, 1907 in order to protect and preserve the cliff structures and other archeological sites that were deemed places of “great ethnographic, scientific and educational interest” for future generations. The land that encompasses Tonto National Monument has been used by Native American peoples for at least 10,000 years. For the purpose of addressing their consultation responsibilities under the federal law and mandates, the National Park Service contracted with the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology (BARA) at the University of Arizona (UofA) to complete a Native American site interpretation study at Tonto National Monument.

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