AuthorGanfoud, Ahmed Abulaid.
KeywordsHydraulic engineering -- Laboratory manuals.
Hydraulic engineering -- Experiments.
Hydraulic laboratories -- Arizona -- Tucson.
Hydraulics -- Laboratory manuals.
Hydraulics -- Experiments.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Fusion of Time-Lapse Gravity Survey and Hydraulic Tomography for Estimating Spatially Varying Hydraulic Conductivity and Specific Yield FieldsTsai, Jui-Pin; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Zha, Yuanyuan; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Hwang, Cheinway; Wang, Yu-Li; Hao, Yonghong; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci; Department of Civil Engineering; National Chiao-Tung University; Hsinchu Taiwan; Key Laboratory for Water Environment and Resources; Tianjin Normal University; Tianjin China; Department of Civil Engineering; National Chiao-Tung University; Hsinchu Taiwan; State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science; Wuhan University; Wuhan China; Department of Civil Engineering; National Chiao-Tung University; Hsinchu Taiwan; Department of Civil Engineering; National Chiao-Tung University; Hsinchu Taiwan; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences; The University of Arizona; Tucson AZ USA; Key Laboratory for Water Environment and Resources; Tianjin Normal University; Tianjin China (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-10)Hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (S-y) are important aquifer parameters, pertinent to groundwater resources management and protection. These parameters are commonly estimated through a traditional cross-well pumping test. Employing the traditional approach to obtain detailed spatial distributions of the parameters over a large area is generally formidable. For this reason, this study proposes a stochastic method that integrates hydraulic head and time-lapse gravity based on hydraulic tomography (HT) to efficiently derive the spatial distribution of K and Sy over a large area. This method is demonstrated using several synthetic experiments. Results of these experiments show that the K and Sy fields estimated by joint inversion of the gravity and head data set from sequential injection tests in unconfined aquifers are superior to those from the HT based on head data alone. We attribute this advantage to the mass constraint imposed on HT by gravity measurements. Besides, we find that gravity measurement can detect the change of aquifer's groundwater storage at kilometer scale, as such they can extend HT's effectiveness over greater volumes of the aquifer. Furthermore, we find that the accuracy of the estimated fields is improved as the number of the gravity stations is increased. The gravity station's location, however, has minor effects on the estimates if its effective gravity integration radius covers the well field.
Bedrock-controlled Fluvial Geomorphology and the Hydraulics of Rapids on the Colorado RiverMagirl, Christopher Sean (The University of Arizona., 2006)The fluvial geomorphology of the Colorado River cutting across the Colorado Plateau in the western United States is bedrock controlled and largely governed by rapids. Rapids on the Colorado River control the water-surface profile and influence the bathymetry, the storage of sand, and the aquatic ecology. Despite their importance, little data on the hydraulics, sediment transport, and long-term stability of rapids have been collected. By comparing water-surface profiles, the average rate of aggradation at the head of 91 rapids in Grand Canyon between 1923 and 2000 was calculated to be 0.26 ± 0.15 m. In addition, while in 1923, 50% of the cumulative drop through the river corridor occurred in just 9% of the distance, by 2000, the cumulative drop over the same distance increased to 66%. A new hydraulic model, incorporating one-dimensional step-backwater theory, was constructed for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The model includes 2,690 cross sections and simulates discharge up to 5,600 m³/s, offering the opportunity to simulate large floods, rare under the current regulated flow regime. Flow velocities were measured directly in rapids using three separate flow measurement instruments. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure velocity in five Grand Canyon rapids. While the instrument was able to measure velocity in three dimensions up to 3.0 m/s, limitations rendered data unusable for flow above 3.0 m/s. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure the flow field in rapids throughout the water column in Cataract Canyon. The peak average velocity measured by the ADCP was roughly 4.0 m/s. Similarly, average flow velocity of 5.2 m/s was measured in a Cataract Canyon rapid using a pitot-static tube. The pitot-static tube measured instantaneous flow velocities up to 6.5 m/s, one of the fastest velocity measurements made in a river. Using the combination of the ADCP and pitot-static tube, the flow structure and nature of turbulence within rapids were analyzed. Finally, techniques were developed to enable the measurement and construction of detailed water surface, shoreline, and bathymetric maps directly in rapids on the Colorado River.
Soil Air Permeability and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity: Development of Soil Corer Air Permeameter, Post-fire Soil Physical Changes, and 3D Air Flow Model in Anisotropic SoilsChief, Karletta (The University of Arizona., 2007)Air permeability (ka) is a viable alternative to water- and texture-based methods to rapidly map saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). The ability to measure this important hydraulic property without the use of more cumbersome and time-consuming methods may provide a practical approach to generate more complete data to describe hydrologic conditions. This study presents the development of an air permeameter which is suitable for desert soils. The Soil Corer Air Permeameter (SCAP) is compatible with a standard soil corer and employs digital components to measure flowrates under low-pressure gradients to improve accuracy, ease of use, and portability. SCAP allows for the extraction of undisturbed soil samples for laboratory analysis, providing direct comparisons of ka with other soil physical and hydraulic properties. The applicability of a regression equation to estimate Ksat from field-measured ka using SCAP was examined in unburned and burned soils. Ex situ field ka and laboratory Ksat measurements were compared and air to water permeability (ka/kw) ratios were calculated to determine structural changes due to water saturation. The study also characterized changes in permeability due to fire in woodland-chaparral and coniferous soils. For soils that could be extracted with minimal structural changes, results show ka and Ksat measurements for unburned and burned soils were within the 95% confidence intervals of a ka-Ksat regression developed for agricultural soils. However, correlations for in situ ka measurements in some burned soils showed a decrease in accuracy and may be attributed to soil anisotropy. A three-dimensional steady-state finite element air flow model was developed using FEMLAB 3.0A to consider the effects of anisotropy on in situ ka measurements. Results show that anisotropic conditions can introduce an error as high as a factor of 2 especially for air permeameters with high diameter to height (D/H) ratios, however, the error is much smaller than the anisotropy ratio. If anisotropy is important to characterize, it was shown that paired measurements of in situ and ex situ ka can be used to infer the anisotropy ratio.