A COMPARISON OF COUNSELING TOOLS USED BY RECOVERED ALCOHOLIC ALCOHOLISM COUNSELORS AND NONALCOHOLIC ALCOHOLISM COUNSELORS.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Counseling and Guidance
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among first-year college students: An examination of intraindividual variability and the role of alcohol expectanciesMaggs, Jennifer L.; Lee, Christine Mei Lan (The University of Arizona., 2002)While much of the attention focused on college alcohol use has been on the prevalence of heavy drinking and alcohol-related physical and behavioral harm, little is known about individual drinkers' experiences with alcohol, that is, their fluctuations in alcohol consumption and consequences over time. The present study used an intensive repeated measures within-person design to explore the extent to which intraindividual variation in the experience of alcohol-related consequences was a function of frequency of intoxication and the role alcohol expectancies played in those relationships. Across 10 consecutive weeks in one semester, 200 first-year college students completed weekly telephone interviews. Testing hypotheses based on harm reduction principles, hierarchical linear models were used to examine: (1) whether the concept of the point of diminished returns applied to first-year college students' alcohol use, and (2) whether there was an expectancy effect in the relationship between frequency of intoxication and the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Within-person (Level 1) analyses examined whether students' reports of heavy alcohol use were associated with a differential likelihood of experiencing positive and negative consequences compared to when moderate amounts of alcohol were consumed. Between-person (Level 2) analyses examined the extent to which within-person co-variation between alcohol use and consequences was moderated by alcohol expectancies. The results supported the general hypothesis of harm reduction, that negative consequences were minimized with low to moderate amounts of alcohol consumption. In contrast, positive consequences increased with more days of intoxication, not supporting the concept of the point of diminished returns in this population. Finally, an expectancy effect was found for moderate drinking weeks, but not for intoxicated drinking weeks. Students who felt it was more important to experience positive and to avoid experiencing negative consequences reported more positive and fewer negative consequences on weeks of moderate drinking. Discussion focuses on implications for harm reduction in general and programming targeted for the college population.
Navajo children and families living with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effectsGlittenberg, JoAnn; Beckett, Cynthia Diane (The University of Arizona., 2002)The aim of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive Grounded Theory of Navajo parenting for families who are living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). The research question was: What are the social and cultural factors and processes that Navajo families use to mange care for a child with FAS/FAE? The philosophical perspectives that guided the study were: the Navajo philosophy, or view of life; resilience (middle range theory); the Family Stress Theory; and the Resiliency Mode of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation. Resilience was used as the over arching conceptual perspective for the study. A Grounded Theory of Navajo Parenting emerged from the data. Key categories to support the emerging theory were identified. The core category was Versatility through Transcendence. The supporting categories were: Strategies for Managing Challenges; Transcendence in Parenting; Intergenerational Alcohol Abuse, Violence and Suffering; and Knowledge/Acquisition of Needs. The families described their stories of transcendence through substance abuse, suffering, and violence to be able to parent their children who were living with the primary and secondary challenges of prenatal alcohol exposures. Further research is needed to test and expand this emerging theory of Navajo parenting of children with FAS/FAE. The challenges that were related to FAS/FAE were more easily managed with patterns of resilience within the families. Factors that influenced family's abilities to parent will be disseminated to assist other families who are managing the problems associated with FAS/FAE.