Validation of an instrument measuring maintenance of hope in heart transplant patients
KeywordsHealth Sciences, Mental Health.
Health Sciences, Medicine and Surgery.
Health Sciences, Nursing.
AdvisorMishel, Merle H.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to revise and expand the Hope Maintenance Scale. An exploratory design was used to content analyze qualitative data collected from 226 heart transplant patients in the primary study, "Predictors of Quality of Life in Heart Transplantation". Results supported five of the six original dimensions of hope contained in the Hope Maintenance Scale. The five dimensions substantiated were: Downward Comparison, Fostering Optimism, Belief in a Powerful Other, Avoiding Painful Situations or Material, and Viewing the Situation as Temporary. Subcategories for the dimension of Optimism were generated and termed: Forced Optimism, Guarded Optimism, Euphoria, and Gratefulness. The subcategory of Exceptional Experience was developed for the category of Downward Comparison. Normalizing was proposed as an antecedent of hope. Of subjects who expressed normalizing activities, 60% also used other hope maintenance strategies. Of subjects who reported Threats to Normalizing, 42% used no other hope maintenance strategies.
Degree ProgramGraduate College