The role of expectancies in smoking behavior in middle school and high school: An adaptation and extension of the theory of planned behavior
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis study focuses on the utility of the expectancy construct in the prediction of adolescent cigarette smoking within the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), based on recommendations by Marlatt (1985). Specifically, positive and negative smoking expectancies were hypothesized to moderate the relationships of social norms and self-efficacy with smoking intentions and, and for self-efficacy only, smoking behavior. Factor analysis assessed the discriminant validity of the measures. Using multiple regression analyses, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire data from 25,868 sixth through twelfth grade students were used to test the hypotheses. Consistent support was found for the additive effects predicting intentions to smoke and daily smoking. For the interactive effects, moderate support was found predicting intentions, but not daily smoking. Likewise, moderate support was found for school level and smoking status differences in these relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and prevention implications regarding the role and etiology of expectancies within the theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and previous conceptualizations of risk and protective interactive effects.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Family and Consumer Sciences