Development of a measure of negative beliefs about change in psychotherapy
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis researcher examined the construct and predictive validities of the Negative Beliefs About Change Measure (NBC) in order to determine whether the NBC can serve as a measure of resistance. The NBC is composed of 22 items that are based on the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of resistance to change. The participants included 72 adult outpatient psychotherapy patients (29 males and 43 females). Diagnoses included: 42% depressive disorder; 25% adjustment disorder; 17% anxiety disorder; and 16% bipolar disorder. The following measures were administered: NBC; K Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-II (MMPI-II); Openness to Change Scale of the 16 Personality Factor; Stages of Change (SOC); Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-client and therapist versions); Therapist Rating Scale; and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Data were collected at 3 time points---prior to the first psychotherapy session; between the 8th and 9 th therapy sessions; and after the 16th therapy session. A four-factor structure was derived from the NBC. These factors included: Fear of Change, Hopelessness; Fear of Disappointing Self/Others; Noncompliance; they displayed satisfactory internal consistency. The results indicated that the NBC Measure was related to the construct of readiness to change as measured by the SOC and the construct of forming a working relationship as measured by the WAI. The NBC Measure was a weak predictor of change in symptomatology, as measured by the BSI, from time I to time 2. The Hopelessness factor displayed a modest relationship with change in symptomatology from time I to time 2. In sum, the data presented a "mixed picture" with regard to the ability of the NBC to serve as a measure of resistance.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Specia Education, Rehabilitation, and School Psychology