• Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: A Video Tour of the Carbon-14 Dating Process

      Soren, H. David; Genovese, Taylor Robert (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The purpose of this project is to create a video that engages and informs an undergraduate audience about the Carbon-14 dating process. The video takes you through the history of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Lab at the University of Arizona as well as discussion of what exactly carbon-dating is. The audience is then given a walking tour of the actual accelerator while the steps of Carbon-14 dating are explained.
    • Acculturation of the Great Whale River Cree

      Walker, Willard B. (The University of Arizona., 1953)
    • Aggregation and the faunal record: A comparative analysis of two sites in the Silver Creek area of the Mogollon Plateau

      Stiner, Mary C.; Horner, Jennifer Zack, 1967- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Extensive analyses of faunal material recovered from the sites of Bailey Ruin and Pottery Hill have yielded data useful to understanding the causes and consequences of shifting settlement organization in the Silver Creek region during the 13th and 14th centuries. The faunal records of the larger, aggregated site of Bailey Ruin (200 rooms) and the smaller, earlier site of Pottery Hill (50 rooms) indicates that population aggregation was accompanied by changing patterns of faunal exploitation. Questions of changes in species diversity and abundance during this transitional period are also discussed.
    • Alaska Native subsistence and sovereignty: An unfinished work

      McGuire, Thomas; Wolf, Barbara F. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Alaska Native cultures are based on subsistence fishing, hunting and gathering, which also remain important sources of food supply. The 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) extinguished all aboriginal rights to territory, hunting and fishing, creating Native corporations to own Native land in fee simple, instead of reservations with land in trust with the U.S. government (Indian country). ANCSA led to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), which protects subsistence activities on federal land. Alaska followed ANILCA's subsistence guidelines on state land, until the preference was found unconstitutional in 1989. Subsistence and sovereignty today are linked to a network of interacting institutions such as tribal governments, Native corporations, ANCSA, ANILCA and court decisions. The thesis examines these and argues that institutional changes must occur for Alaska Natives to be sovereign and protect subsistence resources and culture. Suggestions include restoring Indian country to Alaska, resource co-management, and amending ANILCA.

      MALLARD, ANGELA MARIE (The University of Arizona., 2008-05)
    • An analysis of household wealth correlates in a Kalinga village

      Longacre, William A.; Trostel, Brian David, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      In the past two decades, ethnoarchaeological methods have grown in importance because of their unique ability to shed direct light on relationships between material culture patterns and social behavior. Ethnoarchaeological research in extant societies allows archaeologists to observe specific examples of how material culture reflects social behavior. The present study demonstrates the value of economic data to ethnoarchaeological analyses. Data collected in 1987-1988 in the Kalinga village of Dangtalan are analyzed from an economic perspective at the household level. Relative household wealth totals are computed for a sample of 56 Dangtalan households. Correlations are explored between wealth and several pottery variables, and between wealth and architectural variables. Results indicate that pottery and architecture in Dangtalan possess certain patterns which correlate in varying degrees with household wealth. Possible implications for archaeology, and potential problems of application are explored.
    • Anthropology Museums and the Search for Social Relevancy

      Mills, Hannah Marie (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      This thesis examines the recent trend in the museum world of increasing the relevancy of museums exhibits toward the public. It focuses on Anthropology museums and their relationship with the history of the discipline of anthropology and its core theories. Through a literature review and case study examination, I identify key challenges that museums with anthropological content face in trying to increase their significance and impact. By addressing these challenges, this thesis also evaluates the strategies museums have used in the recent past for their relative success and effectiveness. Particular emphasis is placed on the Arizona State Museum's Through the Eyes of the Eagle as a case study, as I was personally involved in the exhibition's process and can therefore share deeper insights into the functioning of that exhibit.
    • The Antonine Wall: Reasons for the Roman Retreat

      Soren, David; Sund, Kira Caitlin (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Approaching Maya polities from the side: Models of classic Maya political structure

      Culbert, T. Patrick; Murphy, John Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Maya scholars have proposed models of Maya political organization that range from small, independent, autonomous polities, to large centralized states. This essay examines a series of cross-cultural models (Feudal models, Peer-Polity Interaction, Galactic Politics, Theatre States, Segmentary States, a 'Dynamic' model, and recent speculations by Yoffee (1993)) and asks how they have been applied to the Maya area, in what ways they are similar or different, how they have been applied in other areas, and how they have been treated by Maya scholars. These models share many elements, and this has resulted in some confusion in the literature; this essay attempts to resolve this confusion and to discuss the implications of the relationships among the models. It is suggested that notions of 'power' and 'control' are poorly defined, and for the Maya little understood, and that archaeological definitions of political organization must differ from anthropological models.
    • The Archaeological Resources Protection Act, other federal legislation, and the protection of cultural resources in the United States

      Olsen, John W.; Martin, Daniel Gordon, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      Within the past 100 years, the protection of archaeological and other cultural resources have fallen in part under federal jurisdiction. The role of federal legislation and regulations, with particular emphasis on the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA), is evaluated in terms of guidelines, application, and effectiveness. A history of federal legislation is presented, followed by an in-depth review and analysis of ARPA. The relevance and applicability of ARPA and other legislation is reviewed in terms of resource significance, definitions of archaeological material, logistics of law enforcement, and prosecution of violators. A case review is presented and analyzed. The roles of public archaeology and future legislation are discussed as they apply to continued efforts toward preservation of cultural resources.
    • An archeological reconnaissance of the East Verde River in central Arizona

      Peck, Fred Rawlings,1925- (The University of Arizona., 1956)
    • Art of becoming: Space, time, and place in Editora Globo Comics' representation of Brazilian national identities

      Alonso, Ana Maria; Manthei, Jennifer Judith (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This work investigates the ideological content of Brazilian comics created under the military dictatorship of 1964-1985. The comics promote a vision of national history and identity that corresponds to the military's focus on industrialization. Brazilian history is portrayed as a peaceful transition to a modern, urban nation of white, middle class, rigidly gendered nuclear families. Despite explicit messages of equality, social groups are implicitly subordinated in a hierarchy of social place according to region, race, ethnicity, class, and gender. Recognizing the processes through which the subordination of social groups is legitimated and protest suppressed is essential to combating inequality in contemporary Brazil.
    • Assessment of Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southeast Asia to HIV Infection

      Bala, Shruti (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      HIV/AIDS is more than a health issue. It can affect anyone -- men, women, and children. It is a fundamental threat to development and places the political stability and economic security of developing countries at risk. An analysis of the HIV situation in Southeast Asia among high risk population, specifically sex workers, highlights that political leadership, active health systems, resources, and community level ownership are key elements in the fight against HIV. Sex workers, both formal and informal, are vulnerable to HIV infection due to multiple partners and inconsistent condom use, injecting drug use, migration and mobility, and social and economic factors. In the past two decades, interventions such as the 100% Condom Policy and empowerment and capacity building programs have reduced the vulnerability of HIV infection among sex workers. The increasing movement of sex workers between the countries in Southeast Asia has raised concerns regarding the transmission of HIV. It is necessary to address HIV infection among sex workers from a regional perspective, taking into account the political, social, and economic situation of respective countries. HIV/AIDS is not an issue restricted to the health center alone -- it requires a multi-sectorial approach that combines policy, education, empowerment, health, and gender equity.
    • At home and industriously employed: The Women's National Indian Association

      Hill, Jane H.; Lastowka, Carol Anne Chase, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The Women's National Indian Association (WNIA) organized in 1879 to advocate fair treatment of Native Americans. By manipulating the Victorian ideology of domesticity, the organization was able to send women missionaries to the reservations. Because women could only work "at home," the WNIA redefined the Indian reservation as the missionaries' home. This redefinition ideologically enabled women missionaries to engage in non-traditional work. Conversely, the WNIA believed Indians would only become "civilized" if they moved from traditional dwellings into frame houses. In addition, native houses could only become "homes" if Indian women became ardent housekeepers and converted to Christianity. Accordingly, the WNIA provided financial support to Indians who wished to build houses, and taught the domestic arts to native women and children. In so doing, and by supporting the government's allotment policy, the WNIA participated in the subjugation of Native Americans and in the westward expansion of the United States.
    • An Athlete's Posture: A Discussion of the Evolutionary Biomechanics and Neurobiology of Trunk Alignment in Dancers

      Griggs, Rocio Belen (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      Bipedalism has been discussed and disputed for as long as anthropology has existed. The question remains, however, why did bipedalism evolve? Anthropologists have been unable to find a definitive answer. In an attempt to answer this question, a dancer’s plasticity is discussed after Homo sapien evolution is briefly compared to a chimpanzee’s current body structure. It is argued that dance may have been the intermediary point for the shift from quadrupedalism to bipedalism due to the physical attractiveness of mating dances acting as selectors of mates and consequent genes, as well as the intellectual and emotional benefits of dance.
    • Babocomari Indian village located on the Babocomari River; an archaeological site in southeastern Arizona

      Di Peso, Charles C. (Charles Corradino); Getty, Harry T. (The University of Arizona., 1950)
    • Bottles, buildings, and war: Metaphor and racism in contemporary German political discourse

      Alonso, Ana M.; Green, Meredith Anne, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      Political discourse in contemporary Germany provides a window into issues of racism, nationality, and the overall question of German identity. The use of metaphor and racist semantic techniques in political speeches and articles addressing issues of increased neo-Nazi activity and changes in immigration policy point to an increasing struggle over the establishment of a common discursive framework within which such questions are discussed. Such a struggle itself points to a deeper crisis of the state and German identity. This paper offers an approach to understanding these struggles by first examining metaphorical conceptions of the nation and state that not only reflect and describe, but actually shape German experience of these phenomena, further impacting conceptions of race and national identity. The active role of racism in creating a common discursive framework and as it informs the process/state project of hegemony is examined. Questions concerning whether the racism detected is "new" and the consequences of establishing a racialized discourse will contribute, finally, to an exploration of possibilities for creating an anti-racist discourse in Germany.
    • Bound water in soils as affected by chemical and mechanical treatments

      Rosenblum, Mordecai Sterling,1915- (The University of Arizona., 1939)