• Gender in the Indus Valley Civilization

      Fioccoprile, Emily Ann (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)

      MERNAGH, SUZSANNE (The University of Arizona., 2008-05)
    • Going Against the Flow: Middle Class Families and Neoliberalism in Nogales, Sonora

      Stone, Joanna; Green, Linda; Austin, Diane; Woronov, Terry (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Following decades of protectionism, in 1982 Mexico reacted to its foreign debt crisis by implementing extreme structural adjustment policies and it has continued a pattern of neoliberalism, increasingly opening its economy to international markets. The cumulative impacts of these policies have negatively affected the majority of the Mexican population, and researchers have documented the detrimental effects of neoliberal polices on working and middle classes in other contexts. Based on ethnographic research in Nogales, Sonora, this paper will describe a particular group of Mexicans who have nevertheless risen to middle class status throughout this time period. It will situate them within an industrializing border economy and will investigate some of the factors, both internal and external, that have contributed to their success in this endeavor. Finally, it will raise questions for future research, such as: Is this middle-class sustainable?
    • Good old boys in crisis: Truck drivers and shifting occupational identity in the Louisiana oilpatch

      Finan, Timothy J.; Gardner, Andrew Michael (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      While federal deregulation of the trucking industry had little impact upon the truck drivers serving the Acadian oilpatch, recent legislation deregulating intrastate transportation yielded vast changes in the structure of the occupation. In the past, success as a trucker in the oilpatch depended upon an individual's entrepreneurial drive, as well as the social and familial networks upon which that individual could rely. Intrastate deregulation allowed several truck companies to dominate the industry; these companies grew via a complex series of alliances between transportation companies, service companies, and large oil concerns. These alliances disrupted the process by which individuals transformed social capital into economic capital. The foremost impact of these changes is a rapid drop in trucker's income---many now exist on the brink of insolvency. At the same time, the period of crisis has opened the sector to previously inconceivable options, including forays toward unionization, as well as the entry of women, blacks, and outsiders into the labor pool.
    • Great kivas as integrative architecture in the Silver Creek community, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Herr, Sarah Alice, 1970- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This thesis explores the relationship between circular great kiva sites in the Silver Creek area and counterparts in regions across the Southwest. Great kivas, as communal architecture, are important in community integration. Exploring their distribution through the variables of time, space and form helps us understand change in community integration. The patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of the Silver Creek great kivas correspond to the patterning of these variables in the Upper Little Colorado region. The majority of Silver Creek great kivas appear in a period of westward population movement after A.D. 1000. The Silver Creek great kivas, do not, however, show the same range of formal variation. Since many of the changes in the Upper Little Colorado area are described as resolving problems of increasing population and aggregation, lower population densities in the Silver Creek area may explain the reduced formal variability of its great kivas.
    • The Green Movement: A Sustainable Trend in America

      Ihms, Courtney Katherine (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Ground stone technology in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Valado, Martha Trenna (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This analysis of nearly 1500 ground stone tools collected during five years of excavation in the Silver Creek area of East-Central Arizona is aimed at addressing four research goals: (1) raw material selection; (2) occupational histories; (3) the organization of labor and intensity of production; and (4) migration. Four excavated sites span the time period from A.D. 1050 to 1330. These research domains are investigated by examining technological change and variation in use-wear in the ground stone assemblage. Evidence suggests that although raw material selection was generally consistent throughout this period, there were significant changes in the use of ground stone tools. These changes are especially pronounced in grinding equipment and pottery polishing stones, possibly representing changes in the organization of subsistence and craft production. A comparative approach to assessing the possibility of Kayenta Anasazi migration to the area is also presented.

      Tankersley, Sara J (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)
    • Human Response to Environmental Hazards: Sunset Crater as a Case Study

      Dean, Jeffrey S.; May, Elizabeth Marie (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Natural disasters and rapid environmental changes have resulted in a continuum of responses by human societies throughout history. A model is proposed that incorporates cultural and environmental aspects of human response to natural disasters. The 11th century eruption of Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona is used as a case study in which the archaeological record and dendrochronological and geomorphological evidence are combined to characterize the nature of the human response. The model predicts that the population at Sunset Crater would have been pressured to move, or to move and make cultural or technological adaptations following the eruption. The model has utility in diverse conditions and can be used to interpret archaeological remains and facilitate modern disaster response.
    • Illness Experience of People with Chronic Pain Resulting from Temporomandibular Disorders

      Nichter, Mimi; Edwards, Emery Rose; Nichter, Mimi (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This thesis discusses the illness experience of people living with chronic pain resulting from Temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The literature discusses various aspects of the experience of chronic pain, but there is little research reported specifically on the experience of living with TMD. Using analysis of sufferers' narratives, I discuss common explanatory models and coping strategies. I then present aspects of the bodily experience of TMD as seen in people with comorbid illnesses. The personal or mental aspects of TMD are explored, particularly in terms of fear, anxiety, and hope for the future. Lastly, the broader impacts of TMD are explored through sufferers' relationships with friends and family, and sufferers' ability to function in social contexts. It is concluded that TMD impacts many areas of sufferers' lives, and that the lived experience extends beyond diagnosis and treatment seeking to include the day to day management of TMD pain.
    • Indigenous Cooperatives, Corporations, and the State on Brazil's Extractive Frontier: Contemporary and Historical Globalizations

      Burke, Brian J; Vasquez-Leon, Marcela (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      The AmazonCoop--a cooperative that mediates trade between Brazilian Amazonian indigenous groups and the transnational cosmetics firm The Body Shop--seeks to use the market opportunities provided by neoliberal economic globalization to achieve sustainable development in indigenous villages, with mixed results. While the cooperative provides significant material benefits, it fails to achieve the social goals of democracy, participation, and self-development embodied in the cooperative principles. In this paper, I examine AmazonCoop in the context of historical globalizations on Brazil's "extractive frontier," demonstrating substantial continuity between contemporary and historical political economies. I use this historical anthropological analysis to discuss the potential contributions of cooperatives to development, the relationships between historical and contemporary globalizations, and the political-economic landscapes on which indigenous people can pursue their interests.
    • An Integrative Approach to Interpretations of an Historical-Period Apache Scout Camp at Fort Apache, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Laluk, Nicholas; Mills, Barbara J. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      With the encroachment of the United States military onto Apache lands many Apache men joined the military due to intolerable reservation conditions and the unique economic opportunity of enlisting as scouts for the military. This thesis attempts to better understand the relationships among military personnel, Apache scouts, and nonmilitary Apache people. By examining the material remains of a scout camp located on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation (FAIR), and integrating these findings with oral history and information collected from White Mountain Apache consultants, a better understanding of historical Western Apache life can be delineated. This thesis examines these lifeways and interactions by applying a theoretical framework adopted from Steven Silliman's practical politics, Richard White's concept of the middle ground, and Western Apache landscape knowledge and stories.
    • Intimacy Today

      Leehey, Kelly (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Investigation of faunal remains and social perspectives on natural resource use in an 1867 Wyoming gold mining town

      Rathje, William L.; Rockman, Marcia Helen, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This project is an investigation into the role of wild game in the subsistence modes of the miners of the 1867 Wyoming Gold Rush. It is a preliminary step toward understanding both the dynamics of food procurement during the settlement of the American West and the place of those dynamics in a larger model of the history of American relations to and use of natural resources. Three faunal assemblages from different locales within the historic gold-mining town of South Pass City, Wyoming are analyzed and compared in terms of the presence and use of wild and domestic taxa. Historical sources are assessed for evidence of game procurement and perceptions of natural resources. Although the studied assemblages do not empirically represent the wild game depletion suggested by documentary sources, they do reflect cultural preferences of the time, and may represent a situation of depletion and ultimately a shift in utilized game resources.
    • The Isolated Human Bone From Grasshopper Pueblo (AZ P:14:1[ASM])

      Margolis, Michael Martin; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Beck, Lane; Reid, J. Jefferson; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This paper presents research on isolated human remains from Grasshopper Pueblo and analyzes the processes by which bone becomes displaced from burials. Isolated human bone has never been systematically examined, which represents a significant gap in the study of the prehistoric American Southwest. This research is important because it is the first determination of the pattern of isolated bone found at an archaeological site and the formation processes that are responsible. It is also relevant for the creation of a standard isolated bone methodology and because it enables a better understanding of burial assemblages and anomalous assemblages of culturally modified bone.Subadults dominate the assemblage and larger elements are better represented than smaller elements. Most of the modifications present are postmortem but perimortem breakage and toolmarks are also present. This research produced a baseline of detailed data on isolated human bone in which patterns and anomalies can be inferred; the results suggest multiple causes of the isolation of the specimens, including prehistoric cultural disturbance, rodent disturbance, and the process of excavation.
    • Linking Self-Perception of Stressful Experiences with Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Undergraduate College Students

      Pike, Ivy; Wiley, Kyle Steven (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      A large body of research suggests self-perception of stressful experiences is not always a good predictor of stress biomarkers. On this front, anthropologists have an opportunity to disentangle the interactions between individual perceptions of stress and the stress response. To better understand these interactions we chose a sampling frame that allows individual participants to self-identify as high, medium, and low stress responders. We chose to conduct this research in an undergraduate student community for two reasons: 1) final exams serve as a similarly timed stressor, 2) given the perceived stress associated with student work loads, recruitment should be easier in an undergraduate community. With two data collection points, we recruited and sampled thirty-two students. Stress biomarker data include blood pressure and salivary cortisol, analyzed using Salimetrics high sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay kits. A short questionnaire was used to indicate an individuals’ perception of the role of stress in their lives. Our interview data suggest an awareness of highly variable responses to stress. By comparing the interview data to stress biomarkers across self-designated categories of stress reactions we plan to link variation in perception, reactivity, and biomarkers to develop a more nuanced understanding of the stress response and its physiological outcomes.
    • Locations of self in smoking discourses and practices: An ethnography of smoking among adolescents and young adults in the United States

      Nichter, Mark A.; Tesler, Laura Eve (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Whereas the presence of an ashtray on every table in American restaurants was once the norm, smoking in public places has become increasingly restricted during the late twentieth century. Given the changes in numerous physical and social environments impacting on smoking messages and behaviors within the larger context of contemporary American ideologies about morality, identity, the body, and the social order, how has the relationship between smoking and identity changed? The task of this thesis is to explore this question from the perspective of 22 contemporary young adults with personal smoking histories. After reviewing social trends in cigarette consumption during the past century, I examine the present relationship between smoking and identity, including the influence of social factors, and the significance of identity to motivations and practices pertaining to self-restricted smoking and cessation. The work of constructing, reconstructing and negotiating one's moral identity through discourse and practice receives special attention.