• Human Response to Environmental Hazards: Sunset Crater as a Case Study

      Dean, Jeffrey S.; May, Elizabeth Marie (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Natural disasters and rapid environmental changes have resulted in a continuum of responses by human societies throughout history. A model is proposed that incorporates cultural and environmental aspects of human response to natural disasters. The 11th century eruption of Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona is used as a case study in which the archaeological record and dendrochronological and geomorphological evidence are combined to characterize the nature of the human response. The model predicts that the population at Sunset Crater would have been pressured to move, or to move and make cultural or technological adaptations following the eruption. The model has utility in diverse conditions and can be used to interpret archaeological remains and facilitate modern disaster response.
    • Illness Experience of People with Chronic Pain Resulting from Temporomandibular Disorders

      Nichter, Mimi; Edwards, Emery Rose; Nichter, Mimi (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This thesis discusses the illness experience of people living with chronic pain resulting from Temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The literature discusses various aspects of the experience of chronic pain, but there is little research reported specifically on the experience of living with TMD. Using analysis of sufferers' narratives, I discuss common explanatory models and coping strategies. I then present aspects of the bodily experience of TMD as seen in people with comorbid illnesses. The personal or mental aspects of TMD are explored, particularly in terms of fear, anxiety, and hope for the future. Lastly, the broader impacts of TMD are explored through sufferers' relationships with friends and family, and sufferers' ability to function in social contexts. It is concluded that TMD impacts many areas of sufferers' lives, and that the lived experience extends beyond diagnosis and treatment seeking to include the day to day management of TMD pain.
    • Indigenous Cooperatives, Corporations, and the State on Brazil's Extractive Frontier: Contemporary and Historical Globalizations

      Burke, Brian J; Vasquez-Leon, Marcela (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      The AmazonCoop--a cooperative that mediates trade between Brazilian Amazonian indigenous groups and the transnational cosmetics firm The Body Shop--seeks to use the market opportunities provided by neoliberal economic globalization to achieve sustainable development in indigenous villages, with mixed results. While the cooperative provides significant material benefits, it fails to achieve the social goals of democracy, participation, and self-development embodied in the cooperative principles. In this paper, I examine AmazonCoop in the context of historical globalizations on Brazil's "extractive frontier," demonstrating substantial continuity between contemporary and historical political economies. I use this historical anthropological analysis to discuss the potential contributions of cooperatives to development, the relationships between historical and contemporary globalizations, and the political-economic landscapes on which indigenous people can pursue their interests.
    • An Integrative Approach to Interpretations of an Historical-Period Apache Scout Camp at Fort Apache, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Laluk, Nicholas; Mills, Barbara J. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      With the encroachment of the United States military onto Apache lands many Apache men joined the military due to intolerable reservation conditions and the unique economic opportunity of enlisting as scouts for the military. This thesis attempts to better understand the relationships among military personnel, Apache scouts, and nonmilitary Apache people. By examining the material remains of a scout camp located on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation (FAIR), and integrating these findings with oral history and information collected from White Mountain Apache consultants, a better understanding of historical Western Apache life can be delineated. This thesis examines these lifeways and interactions by applying a theoretical framework adopted from Steven Silliman's practical politics, Richard White's concept of the middle ground, and Western Apache landscape knowledge and stories.
    • Intimacy Today

      Leehey, Kelly (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Investigation of faunal remains and social perspectives on natural resource use in an 1867 Wyoming gold mining town

      Rathje, William L.; Rockman, Marcia Helen, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This project is an investigation into the role of wild game in the subsistence modes of the miners of the 1867 Wyoming Gold Rush. It is a preliminary step toward understanding both the dynamics of food procurement during the settlement of the American West and the place of those dynamics in a larger model of the history of American relations to and use of natural resources. Three faunal assemblages from different locales within the historic gold-mining town of South Pass City, Wyoming are analyzed and compared in terms of the presence and use of wild and domestic taxa. Historical sources are assessed for evidence of game procurement and perceptions of natural resources. Although the studied assemblages do not empirically represent the wild game depletion suggested by documentary sources, they do reflect cultural preferences of the time, and may represent a situation of depletion and ultimately a shift in utilized game resources.
    • The Isolated Human Bone From Grasshopper Pueblo (AZ P:14:1[ASM])

      Margolis, Michael Martin; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Beck, Lane; Reid, J. Jefferson; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This paper presents research on isolated human remains from Grasshopper Pueblo and analyzes the processes by which bone becomes displaced from burials. Isolated human bone has never been systematically examined, which represents a significant gap in the study of the prehistoric American Southwest. This research is important because it is the first determination of the pattern of isolated bone found at an archaeological site and the formation processes that are responsible. It is also relevant for the creation of a standard isolated bone methodology and because it enables a better understanding of burial assemblages and anomalous assemblages of culturally modified bone.Subadults dominate the assemblage and larger elements are better represented than smaller elements. Most of the modifications present are postmortem but perimortem breakage and toolmarks are also present. This research produced a baseline of detailed data on isolated human bone in which patterns and anomalies can be inferred; the results suggest multiple causes of the isolation of the specimens, including prehistoric cultural disturbance, rodent disturbance, and the process of excavation.
    • Linking Self-Perception of Stressful Experiences with Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Undergraduate College Students

      Pike, Ivy; Wiley, Kyle Steven (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      A large body of research suggests self-perception of stressful experiences is not always a good predictor of stress biomarkers. On this front, anthropologists have an opportunity to disentangle the interactions between individual perceptions of stress and the stress response. To better understand these interactions we chose a sampling frame that allows individual participants to self-identify as high, medium, and low stress responders. We chose to conduct this research in an undergraduate student community for two reasons: 1) final exams serve as a similarly timed stressor, 2) given the perceived stress associated with student work loads, recruitment should be easier in an undergraduate community. With two data collection points, we recruited and sampled thirty-two students. Stress biomarker data include blood pressure and salivary cortisol, analyzed using Salimetrics high sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay kits. A short questionnaire was used to indicate an individuals’ perception of the role of stress in their lives. Our interview data suggest an awareness of highly variable responses to stress. By comparing the interview data to stress biomarkers across self-designated categories of stress reactions we plan to link variation in perception, reactivity, and biomarkers to develop a more nuanced understanding of the stress response and its physiological outcomes.
    • Locations of self in smoking discourses and practices: An ethnography of smoking among adolescents and young adults in the United States

      Nichter, Mark A.; Tesler, Laura Eve (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Whereas the presence of an ashtray on every table in American restaurants was once the norm, smoking in public places has become increasingly restricted during the late twentieth century. Given the changes in numerous physical and social environments impacting on smoking messages and behaviors within the larger context of contemporary American ideologies about morality, identity, the body, and the social order, how has the relationship between smoking and identity changed? The task of this thesis is to explore this question from the perspective of 22 contemporary young adults with personal smoking histories. After reviewing social trends in cigarette consumption during the past century, I examine the present relationship between smoking and identity, including the influence of social factors, and the significance of identity to motivations and practices pertaining to self-restricted smoking and cessation. The work of constructing, reconstructing and negotiating one's moral identity through discourse and practice receives special attention.
    • Meaning and Ideas Towards Marriage from Saudi Arabian College Students

      Williams, Brackette F.; Perez, Sandra (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    • Medical Interpreters: Bridging Language Barriers as Cultural Advocates

      Shaw, Susan; Polasek, Staci Nichole (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      In this thesis I take an anthropological approach to examining the doctor-patient relationship and how barriers to this relationship, such as language or cultural differences, effect medical treatment. This literature review analyzes questions such as: What are the roles of medical interpreters, how can medical interpreters act as advocates for the patients, and how do they affect the trust in the doctor5patient relationship? I examine the impacts on trust of cultural differences, language barriers, and use of Medical Interpreters within the doctor-patient relationship. By better understanding the doctor-patient relationship from an anthropological perspective, I will answer questions that show how doctors and patients can establish trust, overcome language barriers, and have higher cultural competency. These answers will aid in closing the gaps between doctors and patients and renew a stronger-trusting relationship. The use of Medical Interpreters is the key to improving the relationship and overall health of limited English speaking patients.
    • Modeling Ancestral Hopi Agricultural Landscapes: Applying Ethnography to Archaeological Interpretations

      Adams, E. Charles; Cutright-Smith, Elisabeth; Adams, E. Charles (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In this thesis, historic Hopi ethnographic data are employed to model ancestral Hopi agricultural land use through the lens of archaeological landscape theory. Emphasizing the interconnectedness of landmarks--loci of discrete interactions between humans and the land--within networked cultural landscapes, archaeological landscape theory provides a unique perspective from which to examine overlapping planes of historic and prehistoric land use.Drawing on ethnographic accounts, a model is constructed that integrates the physical, social organizational, ritual/ceremonial, and traditional history dimensions of historic Hopi agricultural land use. Durable material correlates of agricultural land use are proposed on the basis of ethnographic documentation. This holistic model is applied to archaeological data from the Homol'ovi Ruins State Park (HRSP), northeastern Arizona. The integrative model produced herein allows for the interpretation of relationships between archaeological features representing different land use behaviors and the conceptualization of linkages between landmarks in the ancestral Hopi agricultural landscape.

      Hoffmeister, Kristin Keir (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)
    • Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico

      Holliday, Vance T.; Gaines, Edmund Pendleton; Holliday, Vance T. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This thesis reports the findings of a multi-disciplinary investigation focused on exploring the Paleoindian habitation of the upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Two recently-identified fluted points stand as the first Clovis evidence reported from the project area, and site AZ:EE:16:5 (ASM/INAH) has the potential of containing intact Clovis archaeology. Several lanceolate points of the Plainview variety mark the first late Paleoindian evidence reported from Northern Sonora. Four newly identified lithic sources may inform our understanding of Paleoindian range and mobility in the valley and Greater Southwest region. However, intensive geochronological determinations demonstrate that terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene alluvial deposits are rare or absent throughout most of the basin in Mexico. The findings of the project indicate that well-known Paleoindian-age deposits identified at Clovis sites in the valley in Arizona are restricted to relatively small areas of the upper basin north of the border.
    • Perceptions of AIDS and AIDS Education in Rural Benin: A Case Study in the Collines Department

      Park, Thomas K.; Boyer, Micah Naoum; Park, Thomas K. (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This thesis presents the findings of a small-scale, qualitative study of attitudes toward AIDS and AIDS education campaigns in the village of Sota in central Benin. Through a language ideology framework, this study reviews the overlap and disparity between AIDS discourse and other systems of meaning in Sota, particularly rumors and religious beliefs. The portrait that emerges from this analysis of the social construction of AIDS by multiple discourses suggests that the impact of AIDS education may be limited only in part because the intended recipients fail to understand the information being provided. More importantly, the context and underlying assumptions of educational presentations about HIV/AIDS are not formulated in ways that are compatible with, or directly meaningful to, lived experience.