• Linking Self-Perception of Stressful Experiences with Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Undergraduate College Students

      Pike, Ivy; Wiley, Kyle Steven (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      A large body of research suggests self-perception of stressful experiences is not always a good predictor of stress biomarkers. On this front, anthropologists have an opportunity to disentangle the interactions between individual perceptions of stress and the stress response. To better understand these interactions we chose a sampling frame that allows individual participants to self-identify as high, medium, and low stress responders. We chose to conduct this research in an undergraduate student community for two reasons: 1) final exams serve as a similarly timed stressor, 2) given the perceived stress associated with student work loads, recruitment should be easier in an undergraduate community. With two data collection points, we recruited and sampled thirty-two students. Stress biomarker data include blood pressure and salivary cortisol, analyzed using Salimetrics high sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay kits. A short questionnaire was used to indicate an individuals’ perception of the role of stress in their lives. Our interview data suggest an awareness of highly variable responses to stress. By comparing the interview data to stress biomarkers across self-designated categories of stress reactions we plan to link variation in perception, reactivity, and biomarkers to develop a more nuanced understanding of the stress response and its physiological outcomes.
    • Locations of self in smoking discourses and practices: An ethnography of smoking among adolescents and young adults in the United States

      Nichter, Mark A.; Tesler, Laura Eve (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Whereas the presence of an ashtray on every table in American restaurants was once the norm, smoking in public places has become increasingly restricted during the late twentieth century. Given the changes in numerous physical and social environments impacting on smoking messages and behaviors within the larger context of contemporary American ideologies about morality, identity, the body, and the social order, how has the relationship between smoking and identity changed? The task of this thesis is to explore this question from the perspective of 22 contemporary young adults with personal smoking histories. After reviewing social trends in cigarette consumption during the past century, I examine the present relationship between smoking and identity, including the influence of social factors, and the significance of identity to motivations and practices pertaining to self-restricted smoking and cessation. The work of constructing, reconstructing and negotiating one's moral identity through discourse and practice receives special attention.
    • Meaning and Ideas Towards Marriage from Saudi Arabian College Students

      Williams, Brackette F.; Perez, Sandra (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    • Medical Interpreters: Bridging Language Barriers as Cultural Advocates

      Shaw, Susan; Polasek, Staci Nichole (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      In this thesis I take an anthropological approach to examining the doctor-patient relationship and how barriers to this relationship, such as language or cultural differences, effect medical treatment. This literature review analyzes questions such as: What are the roles of medical interpreters, how can medical interpreters act as advocates for the patients, and how do they affect the trust in the doctor5patient relationship? I examine the impacts on trust of cultural differences, language barriers, and use of Medical Interpreters within the doctor-patient relationship. By better understanding the doctor-patient relationship from an anthropological perspective, I will answer questions that show how doctors and patients can establish trust, overcome language barriers, and have higher cultural competency. These answers will aid in closing the gaps between doctors and patients and renew a stronger-trusting relationship. The use of Medical Interpreters is the key to improving the relationship and overall health of limited English speaking patients.
    • Modeling Ancestral Hopi Agricultural Landscapes: Applying Ethnography to Archaeological Interpretations

      Adams, E. Charles; Cutright-Smith, Elisabeth; Adams, E. Charles (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      In this thesis, historic Hopi ethnographic data are employed to model ancestral Hopi agricultural land use through the lens of archaeological landscape theory. Emphasizing the interconnectedness of landmarks--loci of discrete interactions between humans and the land--within networked cultural landscapes, archaeological landscape theory provides a unique perspective from which to examine overlapping planes of historic and prehistoric land use.Drawing on ethnographic accounts, a model is constructed that integrates the physical, social organizational, ritual/ceremonial, and traditional history dimensions of historic Hopi agricultural land use. Durable material correlates of agricultural land use are proposed on the basis of ethnographic documentation. This holistic model is applied to archaeological data from the Homol'ovi Ruins State Park (HRSP), northeastern Arizona. The integrative model produced herein allows for the interpretation of relationships between archaeological features representing different land use behaviors and the conceptualization of linkages between landmarks in the ancestral Hopi agricultural landscape.

      Hoffmeister, Kristin Keir (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)
    • Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico

      Holliday, Vance T.; Gaines, Edmund Pendleton; Holliday, Vance T. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This thesis reports the findings of a multi-disciplinary investigation focused on exploring the Paleoindian habitation of the upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Two recently-identified fluted points stand as the first Clovis evidence reported from the project area, and site AZ:EE:16:5 (ASM/INAH) has the potential of containing intact Clovis archaeology. Several lanceolate points of the Plainview variety mark the first late Paleoindian evidence reported from Northern Sonora. Four newly identified lithic sources may inform our understanding of Paleoindian range and mobility in the valley and Greater Southwest region. However, intensive geochronological determinations demonstrate that terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene alluvial deposits are rare or absent throughout most of the basin in Mexico. The findings of the project indicate that well-known Paleoindian-age deposits identified at Clovis sites in the valley in Arizona are restricted to relatively small areas of the upper basin north of the border.
    • Perceptions of AIDS and AIDS Education in Rural Benin: A Case Study in the Collines Department

      Park, Thomas K.; Boyer, Micah Naoum; Park, Thomas K. (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This thesis presents the findings of a small-scale, qualitative study of attitudes toward AIDS and AIDS education campaigns in the village of Sota in central Benin. Through a language ideology framework, this study reviews the overlap and disparity between AIDS discourse and other systems of meaning in Sota, particularly rumors and religious beliefs. The portrait that emerges from this analysis of the social construction of AIDS by multiple discourses suggests that the impact of AIDS education may be limited only in part because the intended recipients fail to understand the information being provided. More importantly, the context and underlying assumptions of educational presentations about HIV/AIDS are not formulated in ways that are compatible with, or directly meaningful to, lived experience.
    • A Phenomenology of Taste: Brewmasters and the production of lived taste experience

      Silverstein, Brian; Steiner, Robin Thomas; Silverstein, Brian; Geary, Adam; Mendoza-Denton, Norma (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      Using a phenomenological account of perception drawn largely from the work of Merleau-Ponty (1962) and Gibson (1966; 1974), this thesis explores how perceptual experience is created and modified through practices and discourses. The project examines how a specific perceptual experience--the taste of beer--is formed through the practices and discourses of production. It investigates how both the nuanced taste experiences of brewmasters and the less precise taste experiences of their customers are cultivated in relation to a set of production concerns surrounding the manufacture of a consistent brand. Ultimately, it is argued that the production of brands--the urge to produce products which are identical to themselves--is a characteristic of consumer-oriented late capitalism which illustrates how mechanical reproduction influences the formation of contemporary sensory experiences and lifeworlds.
    • The Politics of an Epidemic: SARS & Chinatown

      Green, Linda B; Eichelberger, Laura Palen; Green, Linda B (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This thesis explores how the 2003 epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, threw into relief the myriad historical, political and economic factors that shape understandings of and responses to a new disease. The author traces how the historic "othering" of Chinese immigrants and their descendents in the United States was combined with dominant discourses of risk and blame to understand SARS and the potential for a domestic epidemic. Narratives from community members of Manhattan's Chinatown are used to investigate the local impacts of the production of these discourses during the SARS epidemic. Finally, the author explores how these dominant discourses were applied locally within Chinatown understand local and personal risk.
    • Prehistoric population dynamics in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Newcomb, Joanne Marie, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The Silver Creek area has been the focus of archaeological research since the late nineteenth century. Many of the theories resulting from this work have incorporated estimates of population, either explicitly or implicitly, into the fabric of their arguments. Topics such as sociopolitical structure, migration, aggregation, and social integration require population reconstructions as a foundation for understanding the processes of culture change. Numerous population reconstructions have been presented in the past for the Silver Creek area; however, much of the data incorporated in the present study was unavailable for the previous reconstructions. In this study, several models based on numerous plausible assumptions are presented to determine if a best fit can be found. The results show that there was a major increase in population in the Silver Creek area between A.D. 900-1100, and population declined steadily after about A.D. 1100-1150 until the region was abandoned by about A.D. 1400.
    • President Obama's Election Campaign in the U.S. and Concepts of Race and Racism

      Miyamoto, Tomoka (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Documents from President Obama?s election campaign show that he was consistently racialized by White people as a member of the African American minority group, providing a pointed demonstration of the continuing importance of White racism in America. His campaign evoked emotional responses to race issues against his will. In U.S. society, where "White privilege" is embedded, White people have a power to create and sustain negative stereotypical images of people of color and thus control both images and people. I have focused on media sources such as news, online clips, and movies, and collected examples of various racist representations of Obama circulating in the public space. I will argue that basic messages behind the stereotypes of people of color have not changed much since the Jim Crow era. Some apparently positive stereotypes are in circulation, and during the campaign they were used to depict Obama, such as the image of the "Magic Negro." My research reveals that this "magic" image is not only limited to African Americans, but can also apply to people of color in general. By providing examples from movies, such as Australia (2008), I will demonstrate that even such apparently positive stereotypes are just as harmful as negative ones and can be applied for all minority groups.
    • Progress and Revolution: Health Ideologies Among Cuban Doctors Working in Bolivia

      Morales, Gabriela (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      The purpose of the study is to examine the health ideologies of Cuban doctors working on volunteer missions in Bolivia. The Cuban government has been sending medical humanitarian aid to countries in need since the 1960's, and Cuban doctors have been providing free medical care in Bolivia since March 2006. In addition to establishing "sanitary posts" in rural areas that otherwise would have little access to care, the Cuban medical brigade has worked in Bolivian hospitals and clinics, instituted several ophthalmology centers, and funded Bolivian students to study medicine in Cuba. I interviewed Cuban doctors working in a variety of medical settings around La Paz, El Alto, and Caranavi. My research revealed that Cuban doctors frame their health work in terms of progress and social revolution. They describe their work in Bolivia as a way to uphold the ideals of the Cuban revolution by expressing solidarity with the poor and spreading social equality. They see their mission not only as providing free healthcare, but also as transforming health practices in Bolivia. Through education campaigns, they seek to raise awareness about health issues and thereby change what they see as the poor "health culture" of Bolivians. For the Cuban doctors, health education goes hand in hand with free health care as a means to bring progress and equality to Bolivians.
    • The Relative Chronology of Cultural Episodes at the Coastal Sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil

      Karl, Ricky J.; Fish, Suzy; Fish, Paul; Bollong, Chuck (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Initially attributed to natural formation processes, shellmounds were eventually acknowledged as cultural products. They were presumed to be the remains of prehistoric hunter-gatherer subsistence practices and of no great antiquity. Scholarly analysis of shellmounds focused on human consumption and discard accumulation rates aimed at establishing population estimates and the antiquity of the mounds. The identified strata were considered to represent insignificant cultural changes during the presumed short existence of the mounds and were analyzed as an after thought. The stratigraphic sequence of the mounds, however, is essential to understanding the behavior responsible for the mounds' formation. The 1999 field season at the coastal sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil conducted a horizontal excavation of an approximately 32 square meter area. The excavation defined three strata, nine inhumations, twenty-eight hearths and 317 postholes. This report will reconstruct the temporal and spatial relationship of these features using a Harris Matrix and AutoCAD drawings. The resultant temporal and spatial framework will be used to confirm a relationship between the individual burials and hearths. It will further imply that all these cultural features are contained within a single stratum of activity and the JABII/LII is a graveyard.
    • Resources, Realpolitik, and Rebellion: Rethinking Grievance in Aceh, Indonesia

      Baro, Mamadou; Holst, Joshua; Baro, Mamadou (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This paper engages operationalized discourses from economics and political science on resources and conflict using anthropological theory and ethnographic techniques. Current trends among civil war scholars locate grievances as ubiquitous constructs or rhetorical tools, irrelevant in causal analysis. This de-emphasis generates an unsavory menu of options for governments seeking to eliminate domestic conflict in resource-rich regions rationalizing grievance-generating human rights abuses.In "developing" resource-rich regions the historical trajectory of indigenous populations is placed in conflict with a development agenda that serves state interests. Grievances are central to the conflict over identity within the affected communities in a struggle for national affiliation or disaffiliation. In the absence of a pluralistic political system grievance-motivated political imperatives combine with political isolation to generate political unrest. As grievances are central to understanding cultural change and social unrest, pluralistic institutions and human rights protections have "realpolitikal" value in securing stability in resource-rich regions.