• Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico

      Holliday, Vance T.; Gaines, Edmund Pendleton; Holliday, Vance T. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This thesis reports the findings of a multi-disciplinary investigation focused on exploring the Paleoindian habitation of the upper San Pedro Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Two recently-identified fluted points stand as the first Clovis evidence reported from the project area, and site AZ:EE:16:5 (ASM/INAH) has the potential of containing intact Clovis archaeology. Several lanceolate points of the Plainview variety mark the first late Paleoindian evidence reported from Northern Sonora. Four newly identified lithic sources may inform our understanding of Paleoindian range and mobility in the valley and Greater Southwest region. However, intensive geochronological determinations demonstrate that terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene alluvial deposits are rare or absent throughout most of the basin in Mexico. The findings of the project indicate that well-known Paleoindian-age deposits identified at Clovis sites in the valley in Arizona are restricted to relatively small areas of the upper basin north of the border.
    • Perceptions of AIDS and AIDS Education in Rural Benin: A Case Study in the Collines Department

      Park, Thomas K.; Boyer, Micah Naoum; Park, Thomas K. (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This thesis presents the findings of a small-scale, qualitative study of attitudes toward AIDS and AIDS education campaigns in the village of Sota in central Benin. Through a language ideology framework, this study reviews the overlap and disparity between AIDS discourse and other systems of meaning in Sota, particularly rumors and religious beliefs. The portrait that emerges from this analysis of the social construction of AIDS by multiple discourses suggests that the impact of AIDS education may be limited only in part because the intended recipients fail to understand the information being provided. More importantly, the context and underlying assumptions of educational presentations about HIV/AIDS are not formulated in ways that are compatible with, or directly meaningful to, lived experience.
    • A Phenomenology of Taste: Brewmasters and the production of lived taste experience

      Silverstein, Brian; Steiner, Robin Thomas; Silverstein, Brian; Geary, Adam; Mendoza-Denton, Norma (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      Using a phenomenological account of perception drawn largely from the work of Merleau-Ponty (1962) and Gibson (1966; 1974), this thesis explores how perceptual experience is created and modified through practices and discourses. The project examines how a specific perceptual experience--the taste of beer--is formed through the practices and discourses of production. It investigates how both the nuanced taste experiences of brewmasters and the less precise taste experiences of their customers are cultivated in relation to a set of production concerns surrounding the manufacture of a consistent brand. Ultimately, it is argued that the production of brands--the urge to produce products which are identical to themselves--is a characteristic of consumer-oriented late capitalism which illustrates how mechanical reproduction influences the formation of contemporary sensory experiences and lifeworlds.
    • The Politics of an Epidemic: SARS & Chinatown

      Green, Linda B; Eichelberger, Laura Palen; Green, Linda B (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This thesis explores how the 2003 epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, threw into relief the myriad historical, political and economic factors that shape understandings of and responses to a new disease. The author traces how the historic "othering" of Chinese immigrants and their descendents in the United States was combined with dominant discourses of risk and blame to understand SARS and the potential for a domestic epidemic. Narratives from community members of Manhattan's Chinatown are used to investigate the local impacts of the production of these discourses during the SARS epidemic. Finally, the author explores how these dominant discourses were applied locally within Chinatown understand local and personal risk.
    • Prehistoric population dynamics in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Newcomb, Joanne Marie, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The Silver Creek area has been the focus of archaeological research since the late nineteenth century. Many of the theories resulting from this work have incorporated estimates of population, either explicitly or implicitly, into the fabric of their arguments. Topics such as sociopolitical structure, migration, aggregation, and social integration require population reconstructions as a foundation for understanding the processes of culture change. Numerous population reconstructions have been presented in the past for the Silver Creek area; however, much of the data incorporated in the present study was unavailable for the previous reconstructions. In this study, several models based on numerous plausible assumptions are presented to determine if a best fit can be found. The results show that there was a major increase in population in the Silver Creek area between A.D. 900-1100, and population declined steadily after about A.D. 1100-1150 until the region was abandoned by about A.D. 1400.
    • President Obama's Election Campaign in the U.S. and Concepts of Race and Racism

      Miyamoto, Tomoka (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Documents from President Obama?s election campaign show that he was consistently racialized by White people as a member of the African American minority group, providing a pointed demonstration of the continuing importance of White racism in America. His campaign evoked emotional responses to race issues against his will. In U.S. society, where "White privilege" is embedded, White people have a power to create and sustain negative stereotypical images of people of color and thus control both images and people. I have focused on media sources such as news, online clips, and movies, and collected examples of various racist representations of Obama circulating in the public space. I will argue that basic messages behind the stereotypes of people of color have not changed much since the Jim Crow era. Some apparently positive stereotypes are in circulation, and during the campaign they were used to depict Obama, such as the image of the "Magic Negro." My research reveals that this "magic" image is not only limited to African Americans, but can also apply to people of color in general. By providing examples from movies, such as Australia (2008), I will demonstrate that even such apparently positive stereotypes are just as harmful as negative ones and can be applied for all minority groups.
    • Progress and Revolution: Health Ideologies Among Cuban Doctors Working in Bolivia

      Morales, Gabriela (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      The purpose of the study is to examine the health ideologies of Cuban doctors working on volunteer missions in Bolivia. The Cuban government has been sending medical humanitarian aid to countries in need since the 1960's, and Cuban doctors have been providing free medical care in Bolivia since March 2006. In addition to establishing "sanitary posts" in rural areas that otherwise would have little access to care, the Cuban medical brigade has worked in Bolivian hospitals and clinics, instituted several ophthalmology centers, and funded Bolivian students to study medicine in Cuba. I interviewed Cuban doctors working in a variety of medical settings around La Paz, El Alto, and Caranavi. My research revealed that Cuban doctors frame their health work in terms of progress and social revolution. They describe their work in Bolivia as a way to uphold the ideals of the Cuban revolution by expressing solidarity with the poor and spreading social equality. They see their mission not only as providing free healthcare, but also as transforming health practices in Bolivia. Through education campaigns, they seek to raise awareness about health issues and thereby change what they see as the poor "health culture" of Bolivians. For the Cuban doctors, health education goes hand in hand with free health care as a means to bring progress and equality to Bolivians.
    • The Relative Chronology of Cultural Episodes at the Coastal Sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil

      Karl, Ricky J.; Fish, Suzy; Fish, Paul; Bollong, Chuck (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Initially attributed to natural formation processes, shellmounds were eventually acknowledged as cultural products. They were presumed to be the remains of prehistoric hunter-gatherer subsistence practices and of no great antiquity. Scholarly analysis of shellmounds focused on human consumption and discard accumulation rates aimed at establishing population estimates and the antiquity of the mounds. The identified strata were considered to represent insignificant cultural changes during the presumed short existence of the mounds and were analyzed as an after thought. The stratigraphic sequence of the mounds, however, is essential to understanding the behavior responsible for the mounds' formation. The 1999 field season at the coastal sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil conducted a horizontal excavation of an approximately 32 square meter area. The excavation defined three strata, nine inhumations, twenty-eight hearths and 317 postholes. This report will reconstruct the temporal and spatial relationship of these features using a Harris Matrix and AutoCAD drawings. The resultant temporal and spatial framework will be used to confirm a relationship between the individual burials and hearths. It will further imply that all these cultural features are contained within a single stratum of activity and the JABII/LII is a graveyard.
    • Resources, Realpolitik, and Rebellion: Rethinking Grievance in Aceh, Indonesia

      Baro, Mamadou; Holst, Joshua; Baro, Mamadou (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This paper engages operationalized discourses from economics and political science on resources and conflict using anthropological theory and ethnographic techniques. Current trends among civil war scholars locate grievances as ubiquitous constructs or rhetorical tools, irrelevant in causal analysis. This de-emphasis generates an unsavory menu of options for governments seeking to eliminate domestic conflict in resource-rich regions rationalizing grievance-generating human rights abuses.In "developing" resource-rich regions the historical trajectory of indigenous populations is placed in conflict with a development agenda that serves state interests. Grievances are central to the conflict over identity within the affected communities in a struggle for national affiliation or disaffiliation. In the absence of a pluralistic political system grievance-motivated political imperatives combine with political isolation to generate political unrest. As grievances are central to understanding cultural change and social unrest, pluralistic institutions and human rights protections have "realpolitikal" value in securing stability in resource-rich regions.
    • Rice bowls and resistance: Cultural persistence at the ManzanarWar Relocation Center, California, 1942--1945

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Branton, Nicole Louise (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Evidence for everyday resistance by Japanese American internees can be identified at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, California through an archaeological analysis of refuse deposits left by the internees. The center landfill contains ceramic tablewares in traditional Japanese forms such as rice and tea bowls, Japanese "dishes," and tiny and sake cups, indicating that internees maintained traditional Japanese foodways despite assimilation pressure from the War Relocation Authority and European American society. The cultural context of Japanese American internment and resistance is reconstructed using ethnographic, oral history, documentary, and archaeological data. This analysis of resistance at Manzanar suggests limitations of existing models of resistance and acculturation in historical archaeology and methods for exploring strategies of cultural persistence as resistance.
    • Ritual and the individual: An analysis of Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Reid, J. Jefferson; Hagenbuckle, Kristen Angela (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, multiple lines of evidence are used to reconstruct the role that Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery played at Grasshopper Pueblo, a fourteenth century pueblo located in east-central Arizona. An analysis of provenience-based information, functional attributes, and the design work on Cibicue Painted Corrugated suggests that these pots may have been used as personal containers, reserved for use in ritual contexts and buried with their owner upon death. Second, a morphological and stylistic comparison of Cibicue Painted Corrugated to Cibicue Polychrome is conducted to clarify the confusion that surrounds the Cibicue typology. In much of the archaeological literature, Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery is conflated with Cibicue Polychrome, a type that dates slightly later. The differences that emerge through the course of this analysis support the classification of the two as separate pottery types.
    • The Role of the Health Sector in Suicides Among Farmers in India

      Singh, Priya (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Mental health in rural communities is a poorly understood global health issue. India represents an important case study for this phenomenon with a worrisome number of farm workers having taken their lives each year. This paper seeks to untangle the contextual factors that lead to such high suicide rates including the economic and political influences on the agricultural sector and the physical and mental strain on farmers in general. It also examines the state of rural and mental health in India and compares the suicide cases in India with those of other nations. This study was accomplished through a thorough review of literature published in the past two decades. The literature reviews suggests that owing to the risks and uncertainties associated with their occupation, farmers are at greater risk for suicide regardless of location. Additionally, there seems to be a large gap in rural mental health and rural health in general that could largely decrease suicide rates if mended. Targeting this group with health services is thus a global health imperative.
    • Roosevelt Red Ware and the organization of ceramic production in the Silver Creek Drainage

      Mills, Barbara J.; Stinson, Susan Lynne, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Along the Mogollon Rim of east-central Arizona changes in the technology of ceramic production, including the appearance of Roosevelt Red Ware, have been attributed to migrating Kayenta-Tusayan populations during the late Pueblo III period. This study compares the technology and mineralogical composition of Pinto Polychrome from the Silver Creek drainage to other wares commonly found in this area and to samples of Pinto Polychrome from sites south of the Mogollon Rim. The petrographic analysis of ceramic samples and the microscopic analysis of raw sands indicate that Pinto Polychrome was locally produced in the Silver Creek drainage, is technologically distinct yet related to Showlow Black-on-red, and is closely tied to the Kayenta-Tusayan tradition of using ceramic plates. Finally, an economic model of integration is used as a framework for assessing the impact of Kayenta-Tusayan migrants in the Silver Creek drainage and their possible connection to the production of Pinto Polychrome.
    • Self-care and self-medication practices in two California Mexican communities: Migrant farm worker families and border residents in San Diego County

      Nichter, Mark A.; Pylypa, Jennifer Jean (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Although medical anthropologists have recently taken up the study of medication use in both developing and developed nations, the medication practices of immigrants remain unstudied. The current research reports on self-medication practices among two California Mexican immigrant communities: immigrant families living along the California-Mexico border, and migrant farm worker families residing in illegal encampments and substandard housing in San Diego's North County. Medication and health seeking practices are found to be influenced by both political-economic forces, and the sociocultural context in which California Mexicans live. The U.S.-Mexico border area is considered as a special context for self-medication, since it permits border-crossing into Tijuana for the purpose of buying Mexican pharmaceuticals at low cost without a prescription. The popularity of injections and the cross-border purchasing of injectable antibiotics and vitamins are discussed as a case study.
    • A sequence of cultural and alluvial deposits in the Cienega Creek basin, Southeastern Arizona

      Eddy, Frank W.; Thompson, R. H.; Haury, E. W.; Thompson, Raymond H.; Sayles, E. B. (The University of Arizona., 1958)
    • Sex, drugs, and disease: A Gramscian analysis of AIDS discourse in the American media

      Philips, Susan U.; Guarino, Honoria, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This paper examines the ideological diversity evidenced in discourse about AIDS in the popular American print media within a framework of Gramscian concepts of hegemony and counter-hegemony. By identifying several "discourses" on AIDS, I explore how they are distinct, what they reveal of the underlying ideologies of their promulgators and to what extent they overlap. An extended discussion of specific metaphors and rhetorical strategies characteristic of a hegemonic discourse, propagated by certain governmental agencies and mainstream news magazines, is contrasted with alternative discursive strategies employed by the gay/lesbian press, the liberal press and the Catholic Church. Moreover, areas of ideological tension within the hegemonic discourse are revealed, as well as points of intersection between "separate" discourses. Finally, the ideological complexity manifest in this discursive field is brought to bear on Gramscian theory which is found to be somewhat limiting in its implication of a dualistic opposition between domination and resistance.