• The Relative Chronology of Cultural Episodes at the Coastal Sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil

      Karl, Ricky J.; Fish, Suzy; Fish, Paul; Bollong, Chuck (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Initially attributed to natural formation processes, shellmounds were eventually acknowledged as cultural products. They were presumed to be the remains of prehistoric hunter-gatherer subsistence practices and of no great antiquity. Scholarly analysis of shellmounds focused on human consumption and discard accumulation rates aimed at establishing population estimates and the antiquity of the mounds. The identified strata were considered to represent insignificant cultural changes during the presumed short existence of the mounds and were analyzed as an after thought. The stratigraphic sequence of the mounds, however, is essential to understanding the behavior responsible for the mounds' formation. The 1999 field season at the coastal sambaqui, Jabuticubiera II, in Santa Catarina, Brazil conducted a horizontal excavation of an approximately 32 square meter area. The excavation defined three strata, nine inhumations, twenty-eight hearths and 317 postholes. This report will reconstruct the temporal and spatial relationship of these features using a Harris Matrix and AutoCAD drawings. The resultant temporal and spatial framework will be used to confirm a relationship between the individual burials and hearths. It will further imply that all these cultural features are contained within a single stratum of activity and the JABII/LII is a graveyard.
    • Resources, Realpolitik, and Rebellion: Rethinking Grievance in Aceh, Indonesia

      Baro, Mamadou; Holst, Joshua; Baro, Mamadou (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This paper engages operationalized discourses from economics and political science on resources and conflict using anthropological theory and ethnographic techniques. Current trends among civil war scholars locate grievances as ubiquitous constructs or rhetorical tools, irrelevant in causal analysis. This de-emphasis generates an unsavory menu of options for governments seeking to eliminate domestic conflict in resource-rich regions rationalizing grievance-generating human rights abuses.In "developing" resource-rich regions the historical trajectory of indigenous populations is placed in conflict with a development agenda that serves state interests. Grievances are central to the conflict over identity within the affected communities in a struggle for national affiliation or disaffiliation. In the absence of a pluralistic political system grievance-motivated political imperatives combine with political isolation to generate political unrest. As grievances are central to understanding cultural change and social unrest, pluralistic institutions and human rights protections have "realpolitikal" value in securing stability in resource-rich regions.
    • Rice bowls and resistance: Cultural persistence at the ManzanarWar Relocation Center, California, 1942--1945

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Branton, Nicole Louise (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Evidence for everyday resistance by Japanese American internees can be identified at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, California through an archaeological analysis of refuse deposits left by the internees. The center landfill contains ceramic tablewares in traditional Japanese forms such as rice and tea bowls, Japanese "dishes," and tiny and sake cups, indicating that internees maintained traditional Japanese foodways despite assimilation pressure from the War Relocation Authority and European American society. The cultural context of Japanese American internment and resistance is reconstructed using ethnographic, oral history, documentary, and archaeological data. This analysis of resistance at Manzanar suggests limitations of existing models of resistance and acculturation in historical archaeology and methods for exploring strategies of cultural persistence as resistance.
    • Ritual and the individual: An analysis of Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Reid, J. Jefferson; Hagenbuckle, Kristen Angela (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, multiple lines of evidence are used to reconstruct the role that Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery played at Grasshopper Pueblo, a fourteenth century pueblo located in east-central Arizona. An analysis of provenience-based information, functional attributes, and the design work on Cibicue Painted Corrugated suggests that these pots may have been used as personal containers, reserved for use in ritual contexts and buried with their owner upon death. Second, a morphological and stylistic comparison of Cibicue Painted Corrugated to Cibicue Polychrome is conducted to clarify the confusion that surrounds the Cibicue typology. In much of the archaeological literature, Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery is conflated with Cibicue Polychrome, a type that dates slightly later. The differences that emerge through the course of this analysis support the classification of the two as separate pottery types.
    • The Role of the Health Sector in Suicides Among Farmers in India

      Singh, Priya (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Mental health in rural communities is a poorly understood global health issue. India represents an important case study for this phenomenon with a worrisome number of farm workers having taken their lives each year. This paper seeks to untangle the contextual factors that lead to such high suicide rates including the economic and political influences on the agricultural sector and the physical and mental strain on farmers in general. It also examines the state of rural and mental health in India and compares the suicide cases in India with those of other nations. This study was accomplished through a thorough review of literature published in the past two decades. The literature reviews suggests that owing to the risks and uncertainties associated with their occupation, farmers are at greater risk for suicide regardless of location. Additionally, there seems to be a large gap in rural mental health and rural health in general that could largely decrease suicide rates if mended. Targeting this group with health services is thus a global health imperative.
    • Roosevelt Red Ware and the organization of ceramic production in the Silver Creek Drainage

      Mills, Barbara J.; Stinson, Susan Lynne, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Along the Mogollon Rim of east-central Arizona changes in the technology of ceramic production, including the appearance of Roosevelt Red Ware, have been attributed to migrating Kayenta-Tusayan populations during the late Pueblo III period. This study compares the technology and mineralogical composition of Pinto Polychrome from the Silver Creek drainage to other wares commonly found in this area and to samples of Pinto Polychrome from sites south of the Mogollon Rim. The petrographic analysis of ceramic samples and the microscopic analysis of raw sands indicate that Pinto Polychrome was locally produced in the Silver Creek drainage, is technologically distinct yet related to Showlow Black-on-red, and is closely tied to the Kayenta-Tusayan tradition of using ceramic plates. Finally, an economic model of integration is used as a framework for assessing the impact of Kayenta-Tusayan migrants in the Silver Creek drainage and their possible connection to the production of Pinto Polychrome.
    • Self-care and self-medication practices in two California Mexican communities: Migrant farm worker families and border residents in San Diego County

      Nichter, Mark A.; Pylypa, Jennifer Jean (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Although medical anthropologists have recently taken up the study of medication use in both developing and developed nations, the medication practices of immigrants remain unstudied. The current research reports on self-medication practices among two California Mexican immigrant communities: immigrant families living along the California-Mexico border, and migrant farm worker families residing in illegal encampments and substandard housing in San Diego's North County. Medication and health seeking practices are found to be influenced by both political-economic forces, and the sociocultural context in which California Mexicans live. The U.S.-Mexico border area is considered as a special context for self-medication, since it permits border-crossing into Tijuana for the purpose of buying Mexican pharmaceuticals at low cost without a prescription. The popularity of injections and the cross-border purchasing of injectable antibiotics and vitamins are discussed as a case study.
    • A sequence of cultural and alluvial deposits in the Cienega Creek basin, Southeastern Arizona

      Eddy, Frank W.; Thompson, R. H.; Haury, E. W.; Thompson, Raymond H.; Sayles, E. B. (The University of Arizona., 1958)
    • Sex, drugs, and disease: A Gramscian analysis of AIDS discourse in the American media

      Philips, Susan U.; Guarino, Honoria, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This paper examines the ideological diversity evidenced in discourse about AIDS in the popular American print media within a framework of Gramscian concepts of hegemony and counter-hegemony. By identifying several "discourses" on AIDS, I explore how they are distinct, what they reveal of the underlying ideologies of their promulgators and to what extent they overlap. An extended discussion of specific metaphors and rhetorical strategies characteristic of a hegemonic discourse, propagated by certain governmental agencies and mainstream news magazines, is contrasted with alternative discursive strategies employed by the gay/lesbian press, the liberal press and the Catholic Church. Moreover, areas of ideological tension within the hegemonic discourse are revealed, as well as points of intersection between "separate" discourses. Finally, the ideological complexity manifest in this discursive field is brought to bear on Gramscian theory which is found to be somewhat limiting in its implication of a dualistic opposition between domination and resistance.
    • The Significance of Heritage Value: From Historic Properties to Cultural Resources

      Ferguson, T. J.; Milliken, Ian Minot; Fish, Paul; Schoen, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Throughout history, the direct or indirect choice of preservation has resulted in the successful incorporation of tangible products of the human past into modern cultural environments. Within the current American historic preservation system, "significance" is used as a delimiter for identifying historic properties that are determined beneficial to the heritage of the American people. As defined under U.S. law, however, "significance" is attributed only to places and objects whose importance is limited within an historical or scientific framework. This thesis proposes that the significance of historic properties transcends the boundaries of these limited frameworks of importance, and demonstrates that the public benefits of preservation are maximized when history is reified through the modern-use of these places and objects as cultural resources for the current and future generations of the American people.
    • Simulating the Long House Valley: An evaluation of the role of agent-based computer simulation in archaeology

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Littler, Matthew Laws, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study presents the results of a detailed analysis of an agent-based computer simulation called Artificial Anasazi. The simulation attempts to replicate the population growth and settlement patterns of the prehistoric Kayenta Anasazi of Long House Valley in northeastern Arizona between A.D. 400-1300. Agent-based simulations model social evolution from the bottom-up, using heterogeneous agents that follow simple rules, in contrast to the top-down computer simulations usually used by archaeologists. Artificial Anasazi is tested against the archaeological record of the real Long House Valley through both qualitative and quantitative methods, and an analysis of the relevant ethnographic information is presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the potentials and pitfalls of using agent-based computer simulation as a serious research tool in archaeology.
    • The simultaneity of experience: Multiple identities and symbolic uses of language among Mexican-Americans

      Philips, Susan U.; Messing, Jacqueline Henriette Elise, 1968-; Philips, Susan U.; Philips, Susan U.; Hill, Jane; González, Norma (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This thesis focuses on multiple identity constructions and symbolic uses of language among Mexican-Americans in Arizona. The concept of a homogeneous "Mexican-American community" is shown to be a construct--an imagined community. Building on anthropological conceptualizations of identity, and studies in language and identity, a framework of the simultaneity of experience focuses the analysis in terms of ethnicity, class, and gender, framing a discussion of the emotional dimension of minority status and the symbolic function of language in identity. Rather than offer a comprehensive analysis of a bounded Mexican-American identity, this paper offers insight into the construction of multiple identities, through the analysis of discourse from a small group of people; individual voices are highlighted through the use of case studies. Conceptualizations of identity construction are problematized, including the common expectation of heterogeneity in ethnic groups such as those of Mexican heritage.
    • Social Differentiation in Animal Use and Subsistence: A Case Study of the Marana Platform Mound

      Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Blythe, Ashley Anne; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Fish, Paul; Fish, Suzanne (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      The Marana Platform Mound Community (AZ AA:12:251[ASM]) in the Tucson Basin of southern Arizona provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of social organization within an early Classic Period Hohokam community. The role of the platform mound for integrative communal ritual or segregated elite-controlled activity is examined through faunal remains from the platform mound and nearby residential localities. Taxonomic diversity, relative abundance, and element distribution are used to measure the extent to which the platform mound served to integrate or distinguish site residents. Subtle differences in the diversity of taxa, the quantity of deposited faunal remains, and the quality of portions and taxa are indicative of differential access to resources between residents at the Platform Mound and residents in sites further away in the Tucson Basin. The findings support the current hypothesis that a dual mode of network and corporate strategy was used to organize the community.
    • Soza Phase Sites in the Lower San Pedro Valley, Arizona

      Luchetta, Sarah Kendall; Mills, Barbara J.; Mills, Barbara J.; Clark, Jeff; Adams, E. Charles (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Archaeological research in the San Pedro Valley during the last decade has shed new light on settlement and subsistence activities of prehistoric people in Southeastern Arizona. The Twin Hawks site (AZ BB:6:20[ASM]), located in the upland region of the Lower San Pedro Valley, provides an opportunity to examine social-economic relationships between riverine and upland sites. Ceramic and flotation studies from excavated sites in the northern Tucson Basin and Lower San Pedro Valley, as well as surveyed sites in the vicinity of the Twin Hawks site are used to address these issues.
    • Spanish Mission Architecture in the Pimería Alta: Structural Remains at Mission Guevavi

      Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Curry, Anne Ronan (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Spanish mission water systems, northwest frontier of new Spain

      Ressler, John Quenton,1937-; Thompson, Raymond H. (The University of Arizona., 1966)
      The Northwest Frontier of New Spain is defined as including the present states of Sonora Baja California, southern Arizona, and California as far north as Sonoma. In the discussion of water systems, chronology is felt to be less important than technology, therefore, the watercontrol structure is used as the basis of comparison. Following a brief examination of the landscape of the region is a section devoted to the region's aboriginal subsistence patterns. Introduced here are the new concepts of the "subsistence focus" and the "subsistence focus area." These were developed to allow a purposely imprecise categorization for Indian subsistence. As the name implies the classification is "focused" on the center of a geographic area where subsistence patterns and subsistence technology are the same or similar, rather than the boundaries of such areas. The technical discussion of water systems separates them into their component units. These are classified and presented in order of their importance and frequency of occurrence, An appendix contains a mission by mission catalogue of the water-control devices used in the region.
    • Spatial Dynamics of the Earliest Human Occupants of Tibet

      Clair, Erin Joy (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      My research, conducted summer 2011, was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of how, when, and why prehistoric peoples initially extended their range up from the lower elevation valleys of northern India and Tibet to the 4,000 – plus - meter elevations of the Tibet Plateau. Recent archaeological research headed by Professor John W. Olsen in western Tibet suggests multiple routes onto the Plateau at different times in prehistory. My research focused on: 1) conducting reconnaissance for ancient sources of raw stone material and 2) examining ancient river terrace and lake shoreline formations to determine the timing and directionality of human movement onto the plateau. We identified new sites to help reconstruct prehistoric land - use patterns in one segment of the Yarlung Zangbo as a hypothetical model for understanding population dynamics on a larger geographical scale. Global positioning systems (GPS) data allowed me to generate hypotheses of prehistoric land - use in south - central Tibet that can be tested in future field seasons against archaeological and spatial data collected over a larger region. This thesis aims to examine data collected during summer field seasons with well - documented geographic locations of sites, archaeological evidence, and research to understand migration onto the Tibet Plateau.
    • Storage and its implications for the advent of rice agriculture in Korea: Konam-ri

      Olsen, John W.; Norton, Christopher John, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Even though archaeology is an expanding field in Korea attempts at reconstructing subsistence strategies in the Neolithic and Bronze Age are few (e.g. Sample 1974; An 1991a). Research directed towards explaining change in subsistence patterns are even fewer. The attempt is made here, through faunal analysis, to address the latter question. There is unambiguous variation in subsistence strategies in the Korean Neolithic and Bronze Age. During the former cultural stage, inhabitants relied heavily on wild game and fish, but by the Bronze Age subsistence shifted towards rice agriculture. The site of Konam-ri, located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, contains both Neolithic (ca. 1,500 B.C.) and Bronze Age (800-500 B.C.) occupations. Based on comparative study, the faunal remains associated with the two occupations suggests the subsistence strategies differed markedly. It is argued in this thesis that increasing population pressure may have been the causal factor leading to the change in subsistence.