• Self-care and self-medication practices in two California Mexican communities: Migrant farm worker families and border residents in San Diego County

      Nichter, Mark A.; Pylypa, Jennifer Jean (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Although medical anthropologists have recently taken up the study of medication use in both developing and developed nations, the medication practices of immigrants remain unstudied. The current research reports on self-medication practices among two California Mexican immigrant communities: immigrant families living along the California-Mexico border, and migrant farm worker families residing in illegal encampments and substandard housing in San Diego's North County. Medication and health seeking practices are found to be influenced by both political-economic forces, and the sociocultural context in which California Mexicans live. The U.S.-Mexico border area is considered as a special context for self-medication, since it permits border-crossing into Tijuana for the purpose of buying Mexican pharmaceuticals at low cost without a prescription. The popularity of injections and the cross-border purchasing of injectable antibiotics and vitamins are discussed as a case study.
    • A sequence of cultural and alluvial deposits in the Cienega Creek basin, Southeastern Arizona

      Eddy, Frank W.; Thompson, R. H.; Haury, E. W.; Thompson, Raymond H.; Sayles, E. B. (The University of Arizona., 1958)
    • Sex, drugs, and disease: A Gramscian analysis of AIDS discourse in the American media

      Philips, Susan U.; Guarino, Honoria, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This paper examines the ideological diversity evidenced in discourse about AIDS in the popular American print media within a framework of Gramscian concepts of hegemony and counter-hegemony. By identifying several "discourses" on AIDS, I explore how they are distinct, what they reveal of the underlying ideologies of their promulgators and to what extent they overlap. An extended discussion of specific metaphors and rhetorical strategies characteristic of a hegemonic discourse, propagated by certain governmental agencies and mainstream news magazines, is contrasted with alternative discursive strategies employed by the gay/lesbian press, the liberal press and the Catholic Church. Moreover, areas of ideological tension within the hegemonic discourse are revealed, as well as points of intersection between "separate" discourses. Finally, the ideological complexity manifest in this discursive field is brought to bear on Gramscian theory which is found to be somewhat limiting in its implication of a dualistic opposition between domination and resistance.
    • The Significance of Heritage Value: From Historic Properties to Cultural Resources

      Ferguson, T. J.; Milliken, Ian Minot; Fish, Paul; Schoen, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Throughout history, the direct or indirect choice of preservation has resulted in the successful incorporation of tangible products of the human past into modern cultural environments. Within the current American historic preservation system, "significance" is used as a delimiter for identifying historic properties that are determined beneficial to the heritage of the American people. As defined under U.S. law, however, "significance" is attributed only to places and objects whose importance is limited within an historical or scientific framework. This thesis proposes that the significance of historic properties transcends the boundaries of these limited frameworks of importance, and demonstrates that the public benefits of preservation are maximized when history is reified through the modern-use of these places and objects as cultural resources for the current and future generations of the American people.
    • Simulating the Long House Valley: An evaluation of the role of agent-based computer simulation in archaeology

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Littler, Matthew Laws, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study presents the results of a detailed analysis of an agent-based computer simulation called Artificial Anasazi. The simulation attempts to replicate the population growth and settlement patterns of the prehistoric Kayenta Anasazi of Long House Valley in northeastern Arizona between A.D. 400-1300. Agent-based simulations model social evolution from the bottom-up, using heterogeneous agents that follow simple rules, in contrast to the top-down computer simulations usually used by archaeologists. Artificial Anasazi is tested against the archaeological record of the real Long House Valley through both qualitative and quantitative methods, and an analysis of the relevant ethnographic information is presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the potentials and pitfalls of using agent-based computer simulation as a serious research tool in archaeology.
    • The simultaneity of experience: Multiple identities and symbolic uses of language among Mexican-Americans

      Philips, Susan U.; Messing, Jacqueline Henriette Elise, 1968-; Philips, Susan U.; Philips, Susan U.; Hill, Jane; González, Norma (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This thesis focuses on multiple identity constructions and symbolic uses of language among Mexican-Americans in Arizona. The concept of a homogeneous "Mexican-American community" is shown to be a construct--an imagined community. Building on anthropological conceptualizations of identity, and studies in language and identity, a framework of the simultaneity of experience focuses the analysis in terms of ethnicity, class, and gender, framing a discussion of the emotional dimension of minority status and the symbolic function of language in identity. Rather than offer a comprehensive analysis of a bounded Mexican-American identity, this paper offers insight into the construction of multiple identities, through the analysis of discourse from a small group of people; individual voices are highlighted through the use of case studies. Conceptualizations of identity construction are problematized, including the common expectation of heterogeneity in ethnic groups such as those of Mexican heritage.
    • Social Differentiation in Animal Use and Subsistence: A Case Study of the Marana Platform Mound

      Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Blythe, Ashley Anne; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Fish, Paul; Fish, Suzanne (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      The Marana Platform Mound Community (AZ AA:12:251[ASM]) in the Tucson Basin of southern Arizona provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of social organization within an early Classic Period Hohokam community. The role of the platform mound for integrative communal ritual or segregated elite-controlled activity is examined through faunal remains from the platform mound and nearby residential localities. Taxonomic diversity, relative abundance, and element distribution are used to measure the extent to which the platform mound served to integrate or distinguish site residents. Subtle differences in the diversity of taxa, the quantity of deposited faunal remains, and the quality of portions and taxa are indicative of differential access to resources between residents at the Platform Mound and residents in sites further away in the Tucson Basin. The findings support the current hypothesis that a dual mode of network and corporate strategy was used to organize the community.
    • Soza Phase Sites in the Lower San Pedro Valley, Arizona

      Luchetta, Sarah Kendall; Mills, Barbara J.; Mills, Barbara J.; Clark, Jeff; Adams, E. Charles (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Archaeological research in the San Pedro Valley during the last decade has shed new light on settlement and subsistence activities of prehistoric people in Southeastern Arizona. The Twin Hawks site (AZ BB:6:20[ASM]), located in the upland region of the Lower San Pedro Valley, provides an opportunity to examine social-economic relationships between riverine and upland sites. Ceramic and flotation studies from excavated sites in the northern Tucson Basin and Lower San Pedro Valley, as well as surveyed sites in the vicinity of the Twin Hawks site are used to address these issues.
    • Spanish Mission Architecture in the Pimería Alta: Structural Remains at Mission Guevavi

      Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Curry, Anne Ronan (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Spanish mission water systems, northwest frontier of new Spain

      Ressler, John Quenton,1937-; Thompson, Raymond H. (The University of Arizona., 1966)
      The Northwest Frontier of New Spain is defined as including the present states of Sonora Baja California, southern Arizona, and California as far north as Sonoma. In the discussion of water systems, chronology is felt to be less important than technology, therefore, the watercontrol structure is used as the basis of comparison. Following a brief examination of the landscape of the region is a section devoted to the region's aboriginal subsistence patterns. Introduced here are the new concepts of the "subsistence focus" and the "subsistence focus area." These were developed to allow a purposely imprecise categorization for Indian subsistence. As the name implies the classification is "focused" on the center of a geographic area where subsistence patterns and subsistence technology are the same or similar, rather than the boundaries of such areas. The technical discussion of water systems separates them into their component units. These are classified and presented in order of their importance and frequency of occurrence, An appendix contains a mission by mission catalogue of the water-control devices used in the region.
    • Spatial Dynamics of the Earliest Human Occupants of Tibet

      Clair, Erin Joy (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      My research, conducted summer 2011, was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of how, when, and why prehistoric peoples initially extended their range up from the lower elevation valleys of northern India and Tibet to the 4,000 – plus - meter elevations of the Tibet Plateau. Recent archaeological research headed by Professor John W. Olsen in western Tibet suggests multiple routes onto the Plateau at different times in prehistory. My research focused on: 1) conducting reconnaissance for ancient sources of raw stone material and 2) examining ancient river terrace and lake shoreline formations to determine the timing and directionality of human movement onto the plateau. We identified new sites to help reconstruct prehistoric land - use patterns in one segment of the Yarlung Zangbo as a hypothetical model for understanding population dynamics on a larger geographical scale. Global positioning systems (GPS) data allowed me to generate hypotheses of prehistoric land - use in south - central Tibet that can be tested in future field seasons against archaeological and spatial data collected over a larger region. This thesis aims to examine data collected during summer field seasons with well - documented geographic locations of sites, archaeological evidence, and research to understand migration onto the Tibet Plateau.
    • Storage and its implications for the advent of rice agriculture in Korea: Konam-ri

      Olsen, John W.; Norton, Christopher John, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Even though archaeology is an expanding field in Korea attempts at reconstructing subsistence strategies in the Neolithic and Bronze Age are few (e.g. Sample 1974; An 1991a). Research directed towards explaining change in subsistence patterns are even fewer. The attempt is made here, through faunal analysis, to address the latter question. There is unambiguous variation in subsistence strategies in the Korean Neolithic and Bronze Age. During the former cultural stage, inhabitants relied heavily on wild game and fish, but by the Bronze Age subsistence shifted towards rice agriculture. The site of Konam-ri, located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, contains both Neolithic (ca. 1,500 B.C.) and Bronze Age (800-500 B.C.) occupations. Based on comparative study, the faunal remains associated with the two occupations suggests the subsistence strategies differed markedly. It is argued in this thesis that increasing population pressure may have been the causal factor leading to the change in subsistence.
    • A Storied Land: Tiyo and the Epic Journey down the Colorado River

      Ferguson, T. J.; Hopkins, Maren P.; Mills, Barbara J.; Zedeño, M. Nieves (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      This thesis evaluates one Hopi oral tradition-Tiyo, the boy from Tokonavi-as a meaningful geographic discourse that reveals a landscape extending from the American Southwest to Mesoamerica and beyond. Hopi's understanding of their past and the significance of the land have evolved within larger struggles between Western and Native American views of time, space, and history. Instead of a static cartographic rendering, the story of Tiyo presents the land as a dynamic entity differentiated through religious and social relations. Theories of place making and materiality help validate a space coterminous with Hopi history and religion, and support a multi-vocal approach to the land. This work has implications for anthropological scholarship, and for the process of decolonizing dominant understandings of Hopi culture. It is equally relevant for historic preservation, indigenous sovereignty, and land claims. Most importantly, this research can assist the Hopi people in communicating cultural knowledge to future generations.
    • Stratigraphy and Geochronology of La Playa Archaeological Site, Sonora, Mexico

      Copeland, Audrey Elizabeth; Quade, Jay; Watson, James; McLaurin, Brett; Villalpando, Elisa (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
      The current study examines the stratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoecology of La Playa, an Early Agricultural period archaeological site (3600-1800 BP) located in northern Sonora, Mexico. We distinguished seven stratigraphic units ranging in age from >44,570 to 680 cal yr BP. All of the cultural remains are contained in Unit B, which spans from 4700-1580 BP. Deposits from Unit B represent overbank deposition from the nearby Rio Boquillas. The majority of cultural materials come from Units B4 and B5, which correspond to the Cienega phase (2800-1800 BP) of the Early Agricultural period. This period coincides with the first sedentary agricultural populations in the region and is marked by thousands of archaeological features including roasting pits, human burials, and extensive canal systems at La Playa. The presence of semi-aquatic and aquatic snails demonstrates that water was present year round in the canal system. The stable and radiometric isotopic evidence suggests that the early agriculturalists diverted ground water, likely from the nearby Rio Boquillas. Cultural remains from Unit C spanning the period <1580-680 BP are rare, suggesting major population decline during this time. There is little to no evidence of bioturbation in Unit C, suggesting that the landscape was thinly vegetated at this time. La Playa has experienced up to five meters of erosion during historic times, exposing a complex alluvial stratigraphy and numerous cultural features, which has greatly complicated archaeological interpretations at the site.
    • Surface treatment and strength of low-fired ceramic bodies: An experimental study

      Schiffer, Michael B.; Fournier GarciÌ a, Patricia (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This experimental investigation examines the influence of surface treatment on the strength of low-fired tempered ceramic bodies. Specimens prepared with commercial raw materials are employed, either finger-smoothed, burnished, textured, slipped/burnished, or resin coated; two building techniques, coiling and paddle-and-anvil, are also included since these forming processes affect the vessel surface. The modulus of rupture or flexural strength is determined by means of a four-point bending test, which is sensitive to critical surface flaws. By means of a univariate analysis of variance, small differences in strength are found between ceramic briquettes with different surface treatments. Although the differences in means for the moduli of rupture values are statistically significant, the differences are of such a low magnitude that they cannot be considered behaviorally relevant. These results are only valid for the materials, mode of preparation, and test procedures employed.
    • Swallowing health ideology: Vitamin consumption among university students in the contemporary United States

      Nichter, Mark; Hardenbergh, Loren Ito (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      The moral coloring of eating behavior in the contemporary U.S. reflects the value placed on taking charge of one's health through diet, exercise, and self-control. At the same moment that health promotion efforts focus on individual responsibility, the population is experiencing time famine, or a chronic shortage of time that does not allow people to live as they think they should. In this context, health behaviors such as exercise and a health-balanced diet may be compromised. Vitamin consumption is one way that individuals maintain a moral identity in the face of time pressure. Drawing on twenty open-ended interviews, this paper explores the multiple meanings vitamins have in the lives of vitamin users, including their role as food substitutes and productivity enhancers. Issues related to efficacy and the tension between biomedical sources of health information and localized "embodied" knowledge also receive attention.
    • Talking about women and AIDS: Normative discourses on sexuality

      Inhorn, Marcia; Sacks, Valarie Lynne, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      A close reading of popular discourses on women and the AIDS epidemic reveals patterns that could be described as attempts to produce and reiterate notions of normative and deviant sexuality. Prostitutes, one frequently depicted "kind" of woman, are presented as indiscriminate, polluting to men, and categorically different from "normal" women. Other women depicted in AIDS discourses are almost always HIV-positive mothers or pregnant women; these women are usually only of concern insofar as they may infect their babies. The themes of self-control, self-discipline, and personal responsibility may also be used to stigmatize women. Such discourses suggest that those who have AIDS are responsible for their own illness. They also deflect attention away from the socioeconomic contexts which may make it more difficult for some to avoid infection, away from the connections between poverty, illness, and disempowerment, and away from the systematic inequalities that characterize U.S. society.
    • Testing farmers' perceptions of climate variability with meteorological data: Burkina Faso and the Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona

      Baro, Mamadou A.; West, Colin Thor (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      This thesis tests perceptions of climate variability with actual rainfall data. It also compares the perceptions of agriculturists in Burkina Faso, West Africa with those of agriculturists in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Southeastern Arizona. This study contests claims by other researchers that farmers' perceptions of climate change are shaped by events rather than variation in climate. The analyses demonstrate that people in both regions are able to detect variations in climate on time-scales of at least a decade. Both groups of farmers key into intra-annual variation that is related to seasonality. That perceptions are based on seasons is due to the fact that seasonality shapes the vulnerability of farming to climate in both regions. This thesis adds perceptions to the analytical field of climate vulnerability studies and points out that the atmospheric phenomena behind the variability farmers perceive merits scientific investigation.