• Talking about women and AIDS: Normative discourses on sexuality

      Inhorn, Marcia; Sacks, Valarie Lynne, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      A close reading of popular discourses on women and the AIDS epidemic reveals patterns that could be described as attempts to produce and reiterate notions of normative and deviant sexuality. Prostitutes, one frequently depicted "kind" of woman, are presented as indiscriminate, polluting to men, and categorically different from "normal" women. Other women depicted in AIDS discourses are almost always HIV-positive mothers or pregnant women; these women are usually only of concern insofar as they may infect their babies. The themes of self-control, self-discipline, and personal responsibility may also be used to stigmatize women. Such discourses suggest that those who have AIDS are responsible for their own illness. They also deflect attention away from the socioeconomic contexts which may make it more difficult for some to avoid infection, away from the connections between poverty, illness, and disempowerment, and away from the systematic inequalities that characterize U.S. society.
    • Testing farmers' perceptions of climate variability with meteorological data: Burkina Faso and the Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona

      Baro, Mamadou A.; West, Colin Thor (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      This thesis tests perceptions of climate variability with actual rainfall data. It also compares the perceptions of agriculturists in Burkina Faso, West Africa with those of agriculturists in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Southeastern Arizona. This study contests claims by other researchers that farmers' perceptions of climate change are shaped by events rather than variation in climate. The analyses demonstrate that people in both regions are able to detect variations in climate on time-scales of at least a decade. Both groups of farmers key into intra-annual variation that is related to seasonality. That perceptions are based on seasons is due to the fact that seasonality shapes the vulnerability of farming to climate in both regions. This thesis adds perceptions to the analytical field of climate vulnerability studies and points out that the atmospheric phenomena behind the variability farmers perceive merits scientific investigation.
    • This pageant which is not won: The Rabin Ahau, Maya women, and the Guatemalan nation

      McAllister, Carlota Pierce, 1969- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The "Rabin Ahau," Daughter of the King in Q'eqchi, is elected annually in a pageant in Coban, Guatemala to represent indigenous women before the Guatemalan nation. Although the contest takes the form of a beauty pageant, the criterion on which the candidates are judged is their authenticity as Maya women; their authenticity, in turn, guarentees Guatemala's distinctiveness in the international community of nations. This thesis explores what signifying authenticity requires of would-be Rabin Ahaus, when being Maya at all in Guatemala has historically been life-threatening. It links the aestheticization of Indianness to the ethnocidal racism which literally erases Maya bodies from the national territory, and examines how Guatemalan nationalist discourse uses mimesis and commodification of "the Indian" to create and control an Indian essence; it indicates, also, how the participants in the contest work mimetic excess to triangulate official authenticity and assert different meanings of the Maya.
    • Three from the margins of anthropology: Hurston, Bohannan and Powdermaker

      Alonso, Ana; Noll, Elizabeth O'Donnell, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      I argue for the importance of 3 marginalized works by women anthropologists: Dust Tracks on a Road by Zora Neale Hurston; Return to Laughter by Laura Bohannan; and Stranger and Friend: The Way of an Anthropologist by Hortense Powdermaker. It is not generally recognized that these works prefigured recent experimental anthropology and provided innovative possibilities for the discipline. Their marginalization was the result of many factors: I focus mainly on the refusal of anthropology (until very recently) to give due credit to its non-scientific side, and the consistent devaluation of women's work within anthropology. I analyze and compare the texts, concentrating on narrative style, use of dialogue, use of authoritative voice, treatment of racism, the author's view of herself and her text, and the text's placement in or between the genres of autobiography, anthropology and fiction. I conclude the anthropological canon should be redefined to include works such as these.
    • TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT AND THE NECESSARY PROCESS OF ADAPTATION

      COLVIN, NATALIE LAUREN (The University of Arizona., 2008-05)
    • Towards healing the trauma of torture in Buddhist settings

      Baro, Mamadou; Wind, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Trauma resulting from torture and other forms of organized violence has been recognized as a growing international public health problem. International NGOs have responded to this problem by initiating anti-torture information campaigns and by establishing collaborative torture rehabilitation and community mental health programs in more than 120 communities in refugee resettlement countries as well as in countries recovering from war-related violence and gross human rights violations. These programs have faced the challenge of recognizing and integrating the non-Western ethnomedical and ethnopsychiatric beliefs of the populations being served into programs founded on Western medical epistemology. The appropriateness of applying in such settings Western diagnostic criteria such as post-traumatic stress disorder has been called into question. Buddhist beliefs further problematize the idea of culturally sensitive treatment. This paper examines torture rehabilitation programs working with Khmer and Tibetan populations with particular attention to the potential contribution of indigenous healing modalities and religious beliefs and practices.
    • Tracing Neoliberalism in Mexico: Historical Displacement and Survival Strategies for Mixtec Families living on the U.S.-Mexico Border

      Green, Linda B.; Vogt, Wendy Alexandra; Green, Linda B. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Mexican neoliberalism has systematically undermined Mexico's rural and indigenous populations and created multiple forms of displacement in communities and individual lives. This thesis traces the impacts of displacement in the lives of Mixtec families living and working on the U.S.-Mexico border. As families encounter new circumstances of risk, violation and vulnerability, they develop material, spatial and social strategies to provide safe and meaningful lives, often through contradictory and uneven processes. Central to these processes are power relations and negotiations of class, ethnicity and gender, which both maintain community and continuity as well as further perpetuate systems of inequality and differentiation between groups, families and individuals. The focus on indigenous peoples in Nogales fills important gaps in the literature of indigenous transnational migrants and the U.S-Mexico border, particularly in light of recent border policies, which are pushing more people to the Arizona-Sonora desert region.
    • Tucson eat yourself: Food, ethnicity and the substantiation of identity

      Alonso, Ana M.; Harris, Elizabeth Woodward (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      For twenty five years, during the second weekend of October, El Presidio Park in downtown Tucson has been the site of a folk festival that aims to celebrate southern Arizona's ethnic diversity and create community amongst Tucsonans. Formerly Tucson Meet Yourself, the festival is today known as the Tucson Heritage Experience. Since its inception in 1974, the festival has showcased ethnicity through music and dance, costumes, storytelling, workshops, and craft demonstrations but most importantly through the sale and preparation of food. This thesis examines the role of food in constructions of community and ethnicity at the Tucson Heritage Experience. Situated at the crossroads of wider debates concerned with the nature of ethnicity, community formation, and the relationship between food and identity, this thesis draws on ethnographic field research to argue that the unique, incorporative nature of food makes it a powerful medium in the substantiation of community and ethnic ties.
    • Ungulate ethoarchaeology: Interpreting Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene archaeological ungulate assemblages from southwest Asia

      Stiner, Mary C.; Dean, Rebecca Marie, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Zooarchaeologists are beginning to produce more data on age profiles and sex ratios in archaeological faunal assemblages, but often lack the ecological basis to interpret these data. This thesis reviews the ethological literature on four main prey species found in southwest Asia faunal assemblages during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene: gazelle (Gazella sp.), Fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica), wild goat (Capra ibex) and wild sheep (Ovis sp.). This ethological review is used to develop models which predict the age and sex composition of archaeological faunal assemblages that were produced during different seasons and by different hunting techniques. Finally, a review of the archaeological record from the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in southwest Asia puts the age and sex ratios from archaeofaunas into the context of economic intensification and domestication.
    • Village formation during the Pueblo III to Pueblo IV period transition: Contextualizing Bryant Ranch Pueblo, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Scholnick, Jonathan B. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Understanding the mechanisms structuring increasing aggregation during the late-thirteenth century in the Silver Creek drainage in East-Central Arizona has been central to the Silver Creek Archaeological Project's research over the last ten years. Key questions about this pattern of increasing village size and sedentism concern the changing social and economic environment, particularly the emerging Pueblo IV craft and subsistence economies. Excavation and analysis data from a small site that immediately pre-dates the Pueblo IV-period aggregation, Bryant Ranch Pueblo, allows us to better understand the trends in this transition. This study examines evidence of craft production and circulation through compositional analyses, as well as ceramic consumption patterns through multivariate analyses of the ceramic assemblages to address the changing social and economic contexts in the Silver Creek region and its surroundings during this transition.
    • Violence and Recidivism at Point of Pines and Turkey Creek Pueblo Through Cranial Analysis

      Watson, James; Lacroix-Martin, Jillian (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      This thesis documents the incidence of cranial trauma from the Mogollon sites of Turkey Creek and Point of Pines Pueblo, spanning the time from A.D. 1000- 1450. The Mogollon were located in the American Southwest and during this time period the population began to coalesce and eventually dispersed. This dispersal led to increased warfare and pillaging of resources and women and represents a time of considerable social change and tension throughout these two regions. The comparisons of cranial trauma made by placement of trauma on cranium, sex of the individual, and also the number and sex of individuals with evidence of recidivism may suggest the use of domestic violence towards women in the population. This is important because it may provide a snapshot into the violence that was used among the Mogollon. Data found that out of 518 skeletal samples, 40 (7.72%) showed signs of cranial trauma. Out of these 40 subjects there were 19 females (47.50%), 16 males (40.00%), 1 sub-adult (2.50%), and 4 unknown (10.00%). Out of these 40 subjects, 7 females (17.50%) and 5 males (12.50%) showed evidence of recidivism. By mapping cranial trauma based upon sex on one skull, the pattern of injury for females were found to be more centrally located on the frontal bone and along the saggital suture and more randomized all around the skull for males. Although these results were in accordance with the hypotheses tested for in this experiment, the results were too close to provide adequate support for domestic violence against women in these pueblos during this time period.
    • Visibility, Monumentality, and Community in the Chacoan Community at Kin Bineola, New Mexico

      Mills, Barbara J; Dungan, Katherine Ann; Mills, Barbara J; Aldenderfer, Mark; Christopherson, Gary (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      Chacoan great houses have been described as providing "ritual" or "integrative" venues and as "monumental" in scale and in the amount of labor required for their construction. This study takes the approach that part of the function of community, monumental, or ritual structures is to transmit meaning and that an examination of visibility connections between these structures and small habitation sites in the surrounding community may provide information about the role of these messages in daily practice. Survey data from the Chacoan community at Kin Bineola, New Mexico is analyzed in a GIS environment using a model of visibility and distance developed for this project. The results show that, contrary to expectations, the great house is much less visible than a less monumental "Chacoan structure." Shrines, small structures interpreted as having a ritual function, are by far the most visible, suggesting a more complex relationship between monumentality and visibility.
    • Voluntary associations of and for the homeless in Tucson

      Weaver, Thomas; Alexander, William Lee, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      An overview is presented of anthropology's interest in voluntary association, from the classical influences and studies to sociological and anthropological work that illustrate recent trends from the last decade. Information is presented from the author's fieldwork with the Tucson Homeless Union and the Southern Arizona Coalition for the Homeless that describes the homeless situation in Tucson and the efforts of these groups, whose members share a dedication to improving conditions for socioeconomically marginal people through activist means of protest and civil disobedience. Marked by fluidity of membership and unique internal dynamics, these groups present a special case-study of voluntary associations as a means of urban adaptation through self-help and as a vehicle for social change. It is demonstrated how and examination of the values expressed by the existence and actions of these associations is useful in understanding the nature of society and the stability of the political system.
    • Warfare and Representation in the Classic Maya: Bonampak and Yaxchilan

      Gimblett, Jennifer Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Weed of the wild: Health, identity and gender among new cigar smokers

      Ortiz, Ana; Rich, Leigh Elizabeth, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Cigars today reproduce American health, identity and gender ideologies rooted in capitalism. Because of pressures to be both producer and consumer, the cigar is merely the latest appropriation of our control/release cycle. Thus, part one unravels the myth of the "safe tobacco." Examining another dualism, part two addresses the construction of identity as negotiation between individual and society. Uniqueness is sought-after, and smokers purchase a ready-made "image" to make their own. Finally, part three shifts Foucault's "normalizing gaze" from female to male. For young men, cigars signify one's "arrival"; for women, "image" and attention-getting schemes. But these impressions negate the female cigar experience. In actuality, both manipulate the symbol differently: Women use cigars as transgressive identity, men embodied identity. However, health risks increase for each. As cigarette users, women often inhale. As non-smokers, men forge a new group once deemed safe from tobacco's costs and pleasures.
    • What is Microfinance? Interesting Theoretical and Economic Critiques with Real Life Experiences in Guatemala

      Gorshkova, Anna (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      This study investigates the market reaction to the required expensing of employee stock options. The main focus of this thesis is to test whether the market reacts more negatively to stock options that are expensed on the income statement compared to stock options that are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. The results are examined by transparency, conservatism, and the efficient market hypothesis. Over the recent decades, a new trend in development has emerged, shining hope on alleviating poverty in countries with underdeveloped economies. "Micro finance" strives to provide financial services to people who otherwise would not have access to these services and resources. In doing so, it hopes to incorporate those individuals into a broader economy. Undoubtedly, micro financing has helped individual people, but the overarching effect of alleviating poverty is debatable and should be examined in order to draw conclusions on how micro financing as a development tool can be improved. This project seeks to examine the micro finance industry, specifically with the involvement of women in Guatemala, with theoretical and economic critiques. The writer's personal internship experience at a microfinance NGO "Namaste Guatemaya" in Guatemala, is combined with independent research of academic texts and historical archives at CIRMA, the "Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamerica" in Antigua. The writer concludes that although micro finance organizations provide crucial help to individuals, they should not be relied on as the sole development strategy of any underdeveloped country, including Guatemala. Larger structural changes are crucial in order for true development to occur.
    • Wounded Knee in 1891 and 1973: Prophets, protest, and a century of Sioux resistance

      Schlegel, Alice; Bohnlein, Ivy Briana, 1974- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Wounded Knee has been the site of two significant encounters between the United States and the Sioux nation: the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1891, and the takeover of Wounded Knee Village in 1973. These encounters are related to each other by more than location: both were the result of Sioux participation in a national movement. In the 1880s, that movement was the Ghost Dance, though Sioux involvement was characterized by a uniquely hostile approach. A century later, the Sioux of Pine Ridge reservation formed an alliance with the national American Indian Movement that resulted in a seventy-one day armed siege at Wounded Knee. During both time periods, similar historical factors, external forces, and internal conflicts resulted in the Sioux taking part in these movements, but the unique character of their resistance was shaped by internalized values and a cultural model which favored an aggressive response to perceived threats.