• Warfare and Representation in the Classic Maya: Bonampak and Yaxchilan

      Gimblett, Jennifer Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Weed of the wild: Health, identity and gender among new cigar smokers

      Ortiz, Ana; Rich, Leigh Elizabeth, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Cigars today reproduce American health, identity and gender ideologies rooted in capitalism. Because of pressures to be both producer and consumer, the cigar is merely the latest appropriation of our control/release cycle. Thus, part one unravels the myth of the "safe tobacco." Examining another dualism, part two addresses the construction of identity as negotiation between individual and society. Uniqueness is sought-after, and smokers purchase a ready-made "image" to make their own. Finally, part three shifts Foucault's "normalizing gaze" from female to male. For young men, cigars signify one's "arrival"; for women, "image" and attention-getting schemes. But these impressions negate the female cigar experience. In actuality, both manipulate the symbol differently: Women use cigars as transgressive identity, men embodied identity. However, health risks increase for each. As cigarette users, women often inhale. As non-smokers, men forge a new group once deemed safe from tobacco's costs and pleasures.
    • What is Microfinance? Interesting Theoretical and Economic Critiques with Real Life Experiences in Guatemala

      Gorshkova, Anna (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      This study investigates the market reaction to the required expensing of employee stock options. The main focus of this thesis is to test whether the market reacts more negatively to stock options that are expensed on the income statement compared to stock options that are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. The results are examined by transparency, conservatism, and the efficient market hypothesis. Over the recent decades, a new trend in development has emerged, shining hope on alleviating poverty in countries with underdeveloped economies. "Micro finance" strives to provide financial services to people who otherwise would not have access to these services and resources. In doing so, it hopes to incorporate those individuals into a broader economy. Undoubtedly, micro financing has helped individual people, but the overarching effect of alleviating poverty is debatable and should be examined in order to draw conclusions on how micro financing as a development tool can be improved. This project seeks to examine the micro finance industry, specifically with the involvement of women in Guatemala, with theoretical and economic critiques. The writer's personal internship experience at a microfinance NGO "Namaste Guatemaya" in Guatemala, is combined with independent research of academic texts and historical archives at CIRMA, the "Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamerica" in Antigua. The writer concludes that although micro finance organizations provide crucial help to individuals, they should not be relied on as the sole development strategy of any underdeveloped country, including Guatemala. Larger structural changes are crucial in order for true development to occur.
    • Wounded Knee in 1891 and 1973: Prophets, protest, and a century of Sioux resistance

      Schlegel, Alice; Bohnlein, Ivy Briana, 1974- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Wounded Knee has been the site of two significant encounters between the United States and the Sioux nation: the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1891, and the takeover of Wounded Knee Village in 1973. These encounters are related to each other by more than location: both were the result of Sioux participation in a national movement. In the 1880s, that movement was the Ghost Dance, though Sioux involvement was characterized by a uniquely hostile approach. A century later, the Sioux of Pine Ridge reservation formed an alliance with the national American Indian Movement that resulted in a seventy-one day armed siege at Wounded Knee. During both time periods, similar historical factors, external forces, and internal conflicts resulted in the Sioux taking part in these movements, but the unique character of their resistance was shaped by internalized values and a cultural model which favored an aggressive response to perceived threats.