• Ritual and the individual: An analysis of Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Reid, J. Jefferson; Hagenbuckle, Kristen Angela (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, multiple lines of evidence are used to reconstruct the role that Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery played at Grasshopper Pueblo, a fourteenth century pueblo located in east-central Arizona. An analysis of provenience-based information, functional attributes, and the design work on Cibicue Painted Corrugated suggests that these pots may have been used as personal containers, reserved for use in ritual contexts and buried with their owner upon death. Second, a morphological and stylistic comparison of Cibicue Painted Corrugated to Cibicue Polychrome is conducted to clarify the confusion that surrounds the Cibicue typology. In much of the archaeological literature, Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery is conflated with Cibicue Polychrome, a type that dates slightly later. The differences that emerge through the course of this analysis support the classification of the two as separate pottery types.
    • Good old boys in crisis: Truck drivers and shifting occupational identity in the Louisiana oilpatch

      Finan, Timothy J.; Gardner, Andrew Michael (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      While federal deregulation of the trucking industry had little impact upon the truck drivers serving the Acadian oilpatch, recent legislation deregulating intrastate transportation yielded vast changes in the structure of the occupation. In the past, success as a trucker in the oilpatch depended upon an individual's entrepreneurial drive, as well as the social and familial networks upon which that individual could rely. Intrastate deregulation allowed several truck companies to dominate the industry; these companies grew via a complex series of alliances between transportation companies, service companies, and large oil concerns. These alliances disrupted the process by which individuals transformed social capital into economic capital. The foremost impact of these changes is a rapid drop in trucker's income---many now exist on the brink of insolvency. At the same time, the period of crisis has opened the sector to previously inconceivable options, including forays toward unionization, as well as the entry of women, blacks, and outsiders into the labor pool.
    • Towards healing the trauma of torture in Buddhist settings

      Baro, Mamadou; Wind, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Trauma resulting from torture and other forms of organized violence has been recognized as a growing international public health problem. International NGOs have responded to this problem by initiating anti-torture information campaigns and by establishing collaborative torture rehabilitation and community mental health programs in more than 120 communities in refugee resettlement countries as well as in countries recovering from war-related violence and gross human rights violations. These programs have faced the challenge of recognizing and integrating the non-Western ethnomedical and ethnopsychiatric beliefs of the populations being served into programs founded on Western medical epistemology. The appropriateness of applying in such settings Western diagnostic criteria such as post-traumatic stress disorder has been called into question. Buddhist beliefs further problematize the idea of culturally sensitive treatment. This paper examines torture rehabilitation programs working with Khmer and Tibetan populations with particular attention to the potential contribution of indigenous healing modalities and religious beliefs and practices.
    • Approaching Maya polities from the side: Models of classic Maya political structure

      Culbert, T. Patrick; Murphy, John Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Maya scholars have proposed models of Maya political organization that range from small, independent, autonomous polities, to large centralized states. This essay examines a series of cross-cultural models (Feudal models, Peer-Polity Interaction, Galactic Politics, Theatre States, Segmentary States, a 'Dynamic' model, and recent speculations by Yoffee (1993)) and asks how they have been applied to the Maya area, in what ways they are similar or different, how they have been applied in other areas, and how they have been treated by Maya scholars. These models share many elements, and this has resulted in some confusion in the literature; this essay attempts to resolve this confusion and to discuss the implications of the relationships among the models. It is suggested that notions of 'power' and 'control' are poorly defined, and for the Maya little understood, and that archaeological definitions of political organization must differ from anthropological models.
    • Rice bowls and resistance: Cultural persistence at the ManzanarWar Relocation Center, California, 1942--1945

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Branton, Nicole Louise (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Evidence for everyday resistance by Japanese American internees can be identified at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, California through an archaeological analysis of refuse deposits left by the internees. The center landfill contains ceramic tablewares in traditional Japanese forms such as rice and tea bowls, Japanese "dishes," and tiny and sake cups, indicating that internees maintained traditional Japanese foodways despite assimilation pressure from the War Relocation Authority and European American society. The cultural context of Japanese American internment and resistance is reconstructed using ethnographic, oral history, documentary, and archaeological data. This analysis of resistance at Manzanar suggests limitations of existing models of resistance and acculturation in historical archaeology and methods for exploring strategies of cultural persistence as resistance.
    • Tucson eat yourself: Food, ethnicity and the substantiation of identity

      Alonso, Ana M.; Harris, Elizabeth Woodward (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      For twenty five years, during the second weekend of October, El Presidio Park in downtown Tucson has been the site of a folk festival that aims to celebrate southern Arizona's ethnic diversity and create community amongst Tucsonans. Formerly Tucson Meet Yourself, the festival is today known as the Tucson Heritage Experience. Since its inception in 1974, the festival has showcased ethnicity through music and dance, costumes, storytelling, workshops, and craft demonstrations but most importantly through the sale and preparation of food. This thesis examines the role of food in constructions of community and ethnicity at the Tucson Heritage Experience. Situated at the crossroads of wider debates concerned with the nature of ethnicity, community formation, and the relationship between food and identity, this thesis draws on ethnographic field research to argue that the unique, incorporative nature of food makes it a powerful medium in the substantiation of community and ethnic ties.
    • Ground stone technology in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Valado, Martha Trenna (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This analysis of nearly 1500 ground stone tools collected during five years of excavation in the Silver Creek area of East-Central Arizona is aimed at addressing four research goals: (1) raw material selection; (2) occupational histories; (3) the organization of labor and intensity of production; and (4) migration. Four excavated sites span the time period from A.D. 1050 to 1330. These research domains are investigated by examining technological change and variation in use-wear in the ground stone assemblage. Evidence suggests that although raw material selection was generally consistent throughout this period, there were significant changes in the use of ground stone tools. These changes are especially pronounced in grinding equipment and pottery polishing stones, possibly representing changes in the organization of subsistence and craft production. A comparative approach to assessing the possibility of Kayenta Anasazi migration to the area is also presented.
    • Simulating the Long House Valley: An evaluation of the role of agent-based computer simulation in archaeology

      Reid, J. Jefferson; Littler, Matthew Laws, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study presents the results of a detailed analysis of an agent-based computer simulation called Artificial Anasazi. The simulation attempts to replicate the population growth and settlement patterns of the prehistoric Kayenta Anasazi of Long House Valley in northeastern Arizona between A.D. 400-1300. Agent-based simulations model social evolution from the bottom-up, using heterogeneous agents that follow simple rules, in contrast to the top-down computer simulations usually used by archaeologists. Artificial Anasazi is tested against the archaeological record of the real Long House Valley through both qualitative and quantitative methods, and an analysis of the relevant ethnographic information is presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the potentials and pitfalls of using agent-based computer simulation as a serious research tool in archaeology.
    • Wounded Knee in 1891 and 1973: Prophets, protest, and a century of Sioux resistance

      Schlegel, Alice; Bohnlein, Ivy Briana, 1974- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Wounded Knee has been the site of two significant encounters between the United States and the Sioux nation: the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1891, and the takeover of Wounded Knee Village in 1973. These encounters are related to each other by more than location: both were the result of Sioux participation in a national movement. In the 1880s, that movement was the Ghost Dance, though Sioux involvement was characterized by a uniquely hostile approach. A century later, the Sioux of Pine Ridge reservation formed an alliance with the national American Indian Movement that resulted in a seventy-one day armed siege at Wounded Knee. During both time periods, similar historical factors, external forces, and internal conflicts resulted in the Sioux taking part in these movements, but the unique character of their resistance was shaped by internalized values and a cultural model which favored an aggressive response to perceived threats.
    • Weed of the wild: Health, identity and gender among new cigar smokers

      Ortiz, Ana; Rich, Leigh Elizabeth, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Cigars today reproduce American health, identity and gender ideologies rooted in capitalism. Because of pressures to be both producer and consumer, the cigar is merely the latest appropriation of our control/release cycle. Thus, part one unravels the myth of the "safe tobacco." Examining another dualism, part two addresses the construction of identity as negotiation between individual and society. Uniqueness is sought-after, and smokers purchase a ready-made "image" to make their own. Finally, part three shifts Foucault's "normalizing gaze" from female to male. For young men, cigars signify one's "arrival"; for women, "image" and attention-getting schemes. But these impressions negate the female cigar experience. In actuality, both manipulate the symbol differently: Women use cigars as transgressive identity, men embodied identity. However, health risks increase for each. As cigarette users, women often inhale. As non-smokers, men forge a new group once deemed safe from tobacco's costs and pleasures.
    • Ungulate ethoarchaeology: Interpreting Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene archaeological ungulate assemblages from southwest Asia

      Stiner, Mary C.; Dean, Rebecca Marie, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Zooarchaeologists are beginning to produce more data on age profiles and sex ratios in archaeological faunal assemblages, but often lack the ecological basis to interpret these data. This thesis reviews the ethological literature on four main prey species found in southwest Asia faunal assemblages during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene: gazelle (Gazella sp.), Fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica), wild goat (Capra ibex) and wild sheep (Ovis sp.). This ethological review is used to develop models which predict the age and sex composition of archaeological faunal assemblages that were produced during different seasons and by different hunting techniques. Finally, a review of the archaeological record from the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in southwest Asia puts the age and sex ratios from archaeofaunas into the context of economic intensification and domestication.
    • Prehistoric population dynamics in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Newcomb, Joanne Marie, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The Silver Creek area has been the focus of archaeological research since the late nineteenth century. Many of the theories resulting from this work have incorporated estimates of population, either explicitly or implicitly, into the fabric of their arguments. Topics such as sociopolitical structure, migration, aggregation, and social integration require population reconstructions as a foundation for understanding the processes of culture change. Numerous population reconstructions have been presented in the past for the Silver Creek area; however, much of the data incorporated in the present study was unavailable for the previous reconstructions. In this study, several models based on numerous plausible assumptions are presented to determine if a best fit can be found. The results show that there was a major increase in population in the Silver Creek area between A.D. 900-1100, and population declined steadily after about A.D. 1100-1150 until the region was abandoned by about A.D. 1400.
    • Self-care and self-medication practices in two California Mexican communities: Migrant farm worker families and border residents in San Diego County

      Nichter, Mark A.; Pylypa, Jennifer Jean (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Although medical anthropologists have recently taken up the study of medication use in both developing and developed nations, the medication practices of immigrants remain unstudied. The current research reports on self-medication practices among two California Mexican immigrant communities: immigrant families living along the California-Mexico border, and migrant farm worker families residing in illegal encampments and substandard housing in San Diego's North County. Medication and health seeking practices are found to be influenced by both political-economic forces, and the sociocultural context in which California Mexicans live. The U.S.-Mexico border area is considered as a special context for self-medication, since it permits border-crossing into Tijuana for the purpose of buying Mexican pharmaceuticals at low cost without a prescription. The popularity of injections and the cross-border purchasing of injectable antibiotics and vitamins are discussed as a case study.
    • Aggregation and the faunal record: A comparative analysis of two sites in the Silver Creek area of the Mogollon Plateau

      Stiner, Mary C.; Horner, Jennifer Zack, 1967- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Extensive analyses of faunal material recovered from the sites of Bailey Ruin and Pottery Hill have yielded data useful to understanding the causes and consequences of shifting settlement organization in the Silver Creek region during the 13th and 14th centuries. The faunal records of the larger, aggregated site of Bailey Ruin (200 rooms) and the smaller, earlier site of Pottery Hill (50 rooms) indicates that population aggregation was accompanied by changing patterns of faunal exploitation. Questions of changes in species diversity and abundance during this transitional period are also discussed.
    • Roosevelt Red Ware and the organization of ceramic production in the Silver Creek Drainage

      Mills, Barbara J.; Stinson, Susan Lynne, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Along the Mogollon Rim of east-central Arizona changes in the technology of ceramic production, including the appearance of Roosevelt Red Ware, have been attributed to migrating Kayenta-Tusayan populations during the late Pueblo III period. This study compares the technology and mineralogical composition of Pinto Polychrome from the Silver Creek drainage to other wares commonly found in this area and to samples of Pinto Polychrome from sites south of the Mogollon Rim. The petrographic analysis of ceramic samples and the microscopic analysis of raw sands indicate that Pinto Polychrome was locally produced in the Silver Creek drainage, is technologically distinct yet related to Showlow Black-on-red, and is closely tied to the Kayenta-Tusayan tradition of using ceramic plates. Finally, an economic model of integration is used as a framework for assessing the impact of Kayenta-Tusayan migrants in the Silver Creek drainage and their possible connection to the production of Pinto Polychrome.
    • Storage and its implications for the advent of rice agriculture in Korea: Konam-ri

      Olsen, John W.; Norton, Christopher John, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Even though archaeology is an expanding field in Korea attempts at reconstructing subsistence strategies in the Neolithic and Bronze Age are few (e.g. Sample 1974; An 1991a). Research directed towards explaining change in subsistence patterns are even fewer. The attempt is made here, through faunal analysis, to address the latter question. There is unambiguous variation in subsistence strategies in the Korean Neolithic and Bronze Age. During the former cultural stage, inhabitants relied heavily on wild game and fish, but by the Bronze Age subsistence shifted towards rice agriculture. The site of Konam-ri, located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, contains both Neolithic (ca. 1,500 B.C.) and Bronze Age (800-500 B.C.) occupations. Based on comparative study, the faunal remains associated with the two occupations suggests the subsistence strategies differed markedly. It is argued in this thesis that increasing population pressure may have been the causal factor leading to the change in subsistence.
    • Bottles, buildings, and war: Metaphor and racism in contemporary German political discourse

      Alonso, Ana M.; Green, Meredith Anne, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      Political discourse in contemporary Germany provides a window into issues of racism, nationality, and the overall question of German identity. The use of metaphor and racist semantic techniques in political speeches and articles addressing issues of increased neo-Nazi activity and changes in immigration policy point to an increasing struggle over the establishment of a common discursive framework within which such questions are discussed. Such a struggle itself points to a deeper crisis of the state and German identity. This paper offers an approach to understanding these struggles by first examining metaphorical conceptions of the nation and state that not only reflect and describe, but actually shape German experience of these phenomena, further impacting conceptions of race and national identity. The active role of racism in creating a common discursive framework and as it informs the process/state project of hegemony is examined. Questions concerning whether the racism detected is "new" and the consequences of establishing a racialized discourse will contribute, finally, to an exploration of possibilities for creating an anti-racist discourse in Germany.
    • Ecological and consumer group variation in expedient chipped stone technology of the Pueblo period: An exploratory study in the Silver Creek drainage, Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Kaldahl, Eric James, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      Lithic raw material variety and abundance reveals the technological utility of different source materials from 20 chipped stone surface collections in the Silver Creek area of east-central Arizona, from sites dating between the 9th and 14th centuries. A rich raw material environment obviates distance-from-source constraints, freeing debitage analysis from traditional spatial interpretations regarding the intensity of reduction. Rather the intensity of reduction and the frequency of distinct material types in each assemblage reflects the impact of social organization, community size, exchange and subsistence variation on the organization of chipped stone technology.
    • Investigation of faunal remains and social perspectives on natural resource use in an 1867 Wyoming gold mining town

      Rathje, William L.; Rockman, Marcia Helen, 1971- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This project is an investigation into the role of wild game in the subsistence modes of the miners of the 1867 Wyoming Gold Rush. It is a preliminary step toward understanding both the dynamics of food procurement during the settlement of the American West and the place of those dynamics in a larger model of the history of American relations to and use of natural resources. Three faunal assemblages from different locales within the historic gold-mining town of South Pass City, Wyoming are analyzed and compared in terms of the presence and use of wild and domestic taxa. Historical sources are assessed for evidence of game procurement and perceptions of natural resources. Although the studied assemblages do not empirically represent the wild game depletion suggested by documentary sources, they do reflect cultural preferences of the time, and may represent a situation of depletion and ultimately a shift in utilized game resources.
    • Sex, drugs, and disease: A Gramscian analysis of AIDS discourse in the American media

      Philips, Susan U.; Guarino, Honoria, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This paper examines the ideological diversity evidenced in discourse about AIDS in the popular American print media within a framework of Gramscian concepts of hegemony and counter-hegemony. By identifying several "discourses" on AIDS, I explore how they are distinct, what they reveal of the underlying ideologies of their promulgators and to what extent they overlap. An extended discussion of specific metaphors and rhetorical strategies characteristic of a hegemonic discourse, propagated by certain governmental agencies and mainstream news magazines, is contrasted with alternative discursive strategies employed by the gay/lesbian press, the liberal press and the Catholic Church. Moreover, areas of ideological tension within the hegemonic discourse are revealed, as well as points of intersection between "separate" discourses. Finally, the ideological complexity manifest in this discursive field is brought to bear on Gramscian theory which is found to be somewhat limiting in its implication of a dualistic opposition between domination and resistance.