• Spatial Dynamics of the Earliest Human Occupants of Tibet

      Clair, Erin Joy (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      My research, conducted summer 2011, was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of how, when, and why prehistoric peoples initially extended their range up from the lower elevation valleys of northern India and Tibet to the 4,000 – plus - meter elevations of the Tibet Plateau. Recent archaeological research headed by Professor John W. Olsen in western Tibet suggests multiple routes onto the Plateau at different times in prehistory. My research focused on: 1) conducting reconnaissance for ancient sources of raw stone material and 2) examining ancient river terrace and lake shoreline formations to determine the timing and directionality of human movement onto the plateau. We identified new sites to help reconstruct prehistoric land - use patterns in one segment of the Yarlung Zangbo as a hypothetical model for understanding population dynamics on a larger geographical scale. Global positioning systems (GPS) data allowed me to generate hypotheses of prehistoric land - use in south - central Tibet that can be tested in future field seasons against archaeological and spatial data collected over a larger region. This thesis aims to examine data collected during summer field seasons with well - documented geographic locations of sites, archaeological evidence, and research to understand migration onto the Tibet Plateau.
    • Stratigraphy and Geochronology of La Playa Archaeological Site, Sonora, Mexico

      Copeland, Audrey Elizabeth; Quade, Jay; Watson, James; McLaurin, Brett; Villalpando, Elisa (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
      The current study examines the stratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoecology of La Playa, an Early Agricultural period archaeological site (3600-1800 BP) located in northern Sonora, Mexico. We distinguished seven stratigraphic units ranging in age from >44,570 to 680 cal yr BP. All of the cultural remains are contained in Unit B, which spans from 4700-1580 BP. Deposits from Unit B represent overbank deposition from the nearby Rio Boquillas. The majority of cultural materials come from Units B4 and B5, which correspond to the Cienega phase (2800-1800 BP) of the Early Agricultural period. This period coincides with the first sedentary agricultural populations in the region and is marked by thousands of archaeological features including roasting pits, human burials, and extensive canal systems at La Playa. The presence of semi-aquatic and aquatic snails demonstrates that water was present year round in the canal system. The stable and radiometric isotopic evidence suggests that the early agriculturalists diverted ground water, likely from the nearby Rio Boquillas. Cultural remains from Unit C spanning the period <1580-680 BP are rare, suggesting major population decline during this time. There is little to no evidence of bioturbation in Unit C, suggesting that the landscape was thinly vegetated at this time. La Playa has experienced up to five meters of erosion during historic times, exposing a complex alluvial stratigraphy and numerous cultural features, which has greatly complicated archaeological interpretations at the site.
    • TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT AND THE NECESSARY PROCESS OF ADAPTATION

      COLVIN, NATALIE LAUREN (The University of Arizona., 2008-05)
    • Violence and Recidivism at Point of Pines and Turkey Creek Pueblo Through Cranial Analysis

      Watson, James; Lacroix-Martin, Jillian (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      This thesis documents the incidence of cranial trauma from the Mogollon sites of Turkey Creek and Point of Pines Pueblo, spanning the time from A.D. 1000- 1450. The Mogollon were located in the American Southwest and during this time period the population began to coalesce and eventually dispersed. This dispersal led to increased warfare and pillaging of resources and women and represents a time of considerable social change and tension throughout these two regions. The comparisons of cranial trauma made by placement of trauma on cranium, sex of the individual, and also the number and sex of individuals with evidence of recidivism may suggest the use of domestic violence towards women in the population. This is important because it may provide a snapshot into the violence that was used among the Mogollon. Data found that out of 518 skeletal samples, 40 (7.72%) showed signs of cranial trauma. Out of these 40 subjects there were 19 females (47.50%), 16 males (40.00%), 1 sub-adult (2.50%), and 4 unknown (10.00%). Out of these 40 subjects, 7 females (17.50%) and 5 males (12.50%) showed evidence of recidivism. By mapping cranial trauma based upon sex on one skull, the pattern of injury for females were found to be more centrally located on the frontal bone and along the saggital suture and more randomized all around the skull for males. Although these results were in accordance with the hypotheses tested for in this experiment, the results were too close to provide adequate support for domestic violence against women in these pueblos during this time period.
    • Warfare and Representation in the Classic Maya: Bonampak and Yaxchilan

      Gimblett, Jennifer Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • What is Microfinance? Interesting Theoretical and Economic Critiques with Real Life Experiences in Guatemala

      Gorshkova, Anna (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      This study investigates the market reaction to the required expensing of employee stock options. The main focus of this thesis is to test whether the market reacts more negatively to stock options that are expensed on the income statement compared to stock options that are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. The results are examined by transparency, conservatism, and the efficient market hypothesis. Over the recent decades, a new trend in development has emerged, shining hope on alleviating poverty in countries with underdeveloped economies. "Micro finance" strives to provide financial services to people who otherwise would not have access to these services and resources. In doing so, it hopes to incorporate those individuals into a broader economy. Undoubtedly, micro financing has helped individual people, but the overarching effect of alleviating poverty is debatable and should be examined in order to draw conclusions on how micro financing as a development tool can be improved. This project seeks to examine the micro finance industry, specifically with the involvement of women in Guatemala, with theoretical and economic critiques. The writer's personal internship experience at a microfinance NGO "Namaste Guatemaya" in Guatemala, is combined with independent research of academic texts and historical archives at CIRMA, the "Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamerica" in Antigua. The writer concludes that although micro finance organizations provide crucial help to individuals, they should not be relied on as the sole development strategy of any underdeveloped country, including Guatemala. Larger structural changes are crucial in order for true development to occur.