Recent Submissions

  • Alaska Native subsistence and sovereignty: An unfinished work

    McGuire, Thomas; Wolf, Barbara F. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    Alaska Native cultures are based on subsistence fishing, hunting and gathering, which also remain important sources of food supply. The 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) extinguished all aboriginal rights to territory, hunting and fishing, creating Native corporations to own Native land in fee simple, instead of reservations with land in trust with the U.S. government (Indian country). ANCSA led to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), which protects subsistence activities on federal land. Alaska followed ANILCA's subsistence guidelines on state land, until the preference was found unconstitutional in 1989. Subsistence and sovereignty today are linked to a network of interacting institutions such as tribal governments, Native corporations, ANCSA, ANILCA and court decisions. The thesis examines these and argues that institutional changes must occur for Alaska Natives to be sovereign and protect subsistence resources and culture. Suggestions include restoring Indian country to Alaska, resource co-management, and amending ANILCA.
  • Village formation during the Pueblo III to Pueblo IV period transition: Contextualizing Bryant Ranch Pueblo, Arizona

    Mills, Barbara J.; Scholnick, Jonathan B. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    Understanding the mechanisms structuring increasing aggregation during the late-thirteenth century in the Silver Creek drainage in East-Central Arizona has been central to the Silver Creek Archaeological Project's research over the last ten years. Key questions about this pattern of increasing village size and sedentism concern the changing social and economic environment, particularly the emerging Pueblo IV craft and subsistence economies. Excavation and analysis data from a small site that immediately pre-dates the Pueblo IV-period aggregation, Bryant Ranch Pueblo, allows us to better understand the trends in this transition. This study examines evidence of craft production and circulation through compositional analyses, as well as ceramic consumption patterns through multivariate analyses of the ceramic assemblages to address the changing social and economic contexts in the Silver Creek region and its surroundings during this transition.
  • Educational travel for societal change: An exploration of popular education along the Mexico-United States border

    Austin, Diane E.; Perin, Jodi R. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    During the past few decades, anthropologists have become increasingly interested in how different cultural frameworks come together. One opportunity to view such interactions is presented by travel seminars based on a transformative education model, which aim to educate middle-class people about conditions in economically depressed areas through travel. The task of this thesis is to examine the experiences of U.S. participant groups in one transformative education program, paying particular attention to interpersonal contact, both within groups and between them and local people, and to how participants experience the location of poverty. I argue that multiple factors play a role in terms of whether, how, and why trip participants appear to form new meanings based on their experiences. These factors include the individual's ability to empathize with the 'Other' (i.e. local people) met on the trip and previous experience in and knowledge of economically depressed areas, especially the Third World.
  • Conserving cultural heritage with microcredit: A case study of the Dogon Culture Bank in Fombori, Mali

    Baro, Mamadou; Deubel,Tara F. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
    This thesis presents a case study of the Dogon CultureBank in Fombori, Mali, a local initiative started in 1997 to conserve cultural heritage through the provision of microcredit loans. Participants obtain credit to support small enterprise by using cultural objects as collateral; the objects are conserved and exhibited in a community museum collection. This innovative approach to microfinance has provided financial incentive for cultural conservation in a rural Dogon community, increased social capital among participants, and heightened community awareness of the importance of cultural heritage as a resource for development. Results of quantitative analysis demonstrate a significant increase in overall income generation patterns among participants; however, male borrowers have consistently benefited from both higher loans and greater increases in income generation than female borrowers who are targeted as the primary beneficiaries. The study concludes by highlighting the contributions of the model to the broader field of microfinance in developing countries.
  • "Cooking the body" in a changing world: Post-partumpractices in the Mixteca

    Nichter, Mark; Resau, Laura S. (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    For women in the Lower Mixtec region of Oaxaca, Mexico, the post partum period is traditionally a vulnerable time, when, for forty days, women feel that their bodies are "open" to coldness entering and causing immediate or future illness. Women take protective measures to remove coldness from their "raw" bodies and restore heat by following special diets, dressing warmly, and "cooking the body"---taking hot herbal water baths (banos de cocimiento) or steam baths (banos de temazcal). Based on the narrated experiences of eighteen women in the Mixteca, this thesis explores how several generations of women experience shifts in post partum practices and ideas as their society changes. Women believed that post partum vulnerability varied from woman to woman, depending on where she lived, her habits and customs, and her generation.
  • Testing farmers' perceptions of climate variability with meteorological data: Burkina Faso and the Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona

    Baro, Mamadou A.; West, Colin Thor (The University of Arizona., 2001)
    This thesis tests perceptions of climate variability with actual rainfall data. It also compares the perceptions of agriculturists in Burkina Faso, West Africa with those of agriculturists in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Southeastern Arizona. This study contests claims by other researchers that farmers' perceptions of climate change are shaped by events rather than variation in climate. The analyses demonstrate that people in both regions are able to detect variations in climate on time-scales of at least a decade. Both groups of farmers key into intra-annual variation that is related to seasonality. That perceptions are based on seasons is due to the fact that seasonality shapes the vulnerability of farming to climate in both regions. This thesis adds perceptions to the analytical field of climate vulnerability studies and points out that the atmospheric phenomena behind the variability farmers perceive merits scientific investigation.
  • Swallowing health ideology: Vitamin consumption among university students in the contemporary United States

    Nichter, Mark; Hardenbergh, Loren Ito (The University of Arizona., 2001)
    The moral coloring of eating behavior in the contemporary U.S. reflects the value placed on taking charge of one's health through diet, exercise, and self-control. At the same moment that health promotion efforts focus on individual responsibility, the population is experiencing time famine, or a chronic shortage of time that does not allow people to live as they think they should. In this context, health behaviors such as exercise and a health-balanced diet may be compromised. Vitamin consumption is one way that individuals maintain a moral identity in the face of time pressure. Drawing on twenty open-ended interviews, this paper explores the multiple meanings vitamins have in the lives of vitamin users, including their role as food substitutes and productivity enhancers. Issues related to efficacy and the tension between biomedical sources of health information and localized "embodied" knowledge also receive attention.
  • Ceramics and social dynamics: Technological style and corrugated ceramics during the Pueblo III to Pueblo IV transition, Silver Creek, Arizona

    Mills, Barbara J.; Neuzil, Anna Astrid (The University of Arizona., 2001)
    Prehistoric social networks reveal paths of behavior that are vital to the understanding of past life. Utilitarian ceramics that were a part of everyday life and regular household activities, and the elements of technological style they possess, are accurate indicators of local social dynamics. Corrugated ceramic vessels in particular contain subtleties in their decoration that may distinguish learning frameworks within and between groups on a small, perhaps household-level scale. My study uses these premises to examine corrugated sherds, and the social patterns they reflect, from several sites in the Silver Creek area of east-central Arizona.
  • Locations of self in smoking discourses and practices: An ethnography of smoking among adolescents and young adults in the United States

    Nichter, Mark A.; Tesler, Laura Eve (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    Whereas the presence of an ashtray on every table in American restaurants was once the norm, smoking in public places has become increasingly restricted during the late twentieth century. Given the changes in numerous physical and social environments impacting on smoking messages and behaviors within the larger context of contemporary American ideologies about morality, identity, the body, and the social order, how has the relationship between smoking and identity changed? The task of this thesis is to explore this question from the perspective of 22 contemporary young adults with personal smoking histories. After reviewing social trends in cigarette consumption during the past century, I examine the present relationship between smoking and identity, including the influence of social factors, and the significance of identity to motivations and practices pertaining to self-restricted smoking and cessation. The work of constructing, reconstructing and negotiating one's moral identity through discourse and practice receives special attention.
  • Ritual and the individual: An analysis of Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona

    Mills, Barbara J.; Reid, J. Jefferson; Hagenbuckle, Kristen Angela (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, multiple lines of evidence are used to reconstruct the role that Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery played at Grasshopper Pueblo, a fourteenth century pueblo located in east-central Arizona. An analysis of provenience-based information, functional attributes, and the design work on Cibicue Painted Corrugated suggests that these pots may have been used as personal containers, reserved for use in ritual contexts and buried with their owner upon death. Second, a morphological and stylistic comparison of Cibicue Painted Corrugated to Cibicue Polychrome is conducted to clarify the confusion that surrounds the Cibicue typology. In much of the archaeological literature, Cibicue Painted Corrugated pottery is conflated with Cibicue Polychrome, a type that dates slightly later. The differences that emerge through the course of this analysis support the classification of the two as separate pottery types.
  • Good old boys in crisis: Truck drivers and shifting occupational identity in the Louisiana oilpatch

    Finan, Timothy J.; Gardner, Andrew Michael (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    While federal deregulation of the trucking industry had little impact upon the truck drivers serving the Acadian oilpatch, recent legislation deregulating intrastate transportation yielded vast changes in the structure of the occupation. In the past, success as a trucker in the oilpatch depended upon an individual's entrepreneurial drive, as well as the social and familial networks upon which that individual could rely. Intrastate deregulation allowed several truck companies to dominate the industry; these companies grew via a complex series of alliances between transportation companies, service companies, and large oil concerns. These alliances disrupted the process by which individuals transformed social capital into economic capital. The foremost impact of these changes is a rapid drop in trucker's income---many now exist on the brink of insolvency. At the same time, the period of crisis has opened the sector to previously inconceivable options, including forays toward unionization, as well as the entry of women, blacks, and outsiders into the labor pool.
  • Towards healing the trauma of torture in Buddhist settings

    Baro, Mamadou; Wind, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    Trauma resulting from torture and other forms of organized violence has been recognized as a growing international public health problem. International NGOs have responded to this problem by initiating anti-torture information campaigns and by establishing collaborative torture rehabilitation and community mental health programs in more than 120 communities in refugee resettlement countries as well as in countries recovering from war-related violence and gross human rights violations. These programs have faced the challenge of recognizing and integrating the non-Western ethnomedical and ethnopsychiatric beliefs of the populations being served into programs founded on Western medical epistemology. The appropriateness of applying in such settings Western diagnostic criteria such as post-traumatic stress disorder has been called into question. Buddhist beliefs further problematize the idea of culturally sensitive treatment. This paper examines torture rehabilitation programs working with Khmer and Tibetan populations with particular attention to the potential contribution of indigenous healing modalities and religious beliefs and practices.
  • Approaching Maya polities from the side: Models of classic Maya political structure

    Culbert, T. Patrick; Murphy, John Todd (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    Maya scholars have proposed models of Maya political organization that range from small, independent, autonomous polities, to large centralized states. This essay examines a series of cross-cultural models (Feudal models, Peer-Polity Interaction, Galactic Politics, Theatre States, Segmentary States, a 'Dynamic' model, and recent speculations by Yoffee (1993)) and asks how they have been applied to the Maya area, in what ways they are similar or different, how they have been applied in other areas, and how they have been treated by Maya scholars. These models share many elements, and this has resulted in some confusion in the literature; this essay attempts to resolve this confusion and to discuss the implications of the relationships among the models. It is suggested that notions of 'power' and 'control' are poorly defined, and for the Maya little understood, and that archaeological definitions of political organization must differ from anthropological models.
  • Rice bowls and resistance: Cultural persistence at the ManzanarWar Relocation Center, California, 1942--1945

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Branton, Nicole Louise (The University of Arizona., 2000)
    Evidence for everyday resistance by Japanese American internees can be identified at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, California through an archaeological analysis of refuse deposits left by the internees. The center landfill contains ceramic tablewares in traditional Japanese forms such as rice and tea bowls, Japanese "dishes," and tiny and sake cups, indicating that internees maintained traditional Japanese foodways despite assimilation pressure from the War Relocation Authority and European American society. The cultural context of Japanese American internment and resistance is reconstructed using ethnographic, oral history, documentary, and archaeological data. This analysis of resistance at Manzanar suggests limitations of existing models of resistance and acculturation in historical archaeology and methods for exploring strategies of cultural persistence as resistance.
  • Tucson eat yourself: Food, ethnicity and the substantiation of identity

    Alonso, Ana M.; Harris, Elizabeth Woodward (The University of Arizona., 1999)
    For twenty five years, during the second weekend of October, El Presidio Park in downtown Tucson has been the site of a folk festival that aims to celebrate southern Arizona's ethnic diversity and create community amongst Tucsonans. Formerly Tucson Meet Yourself, the festival is today known as the Tucson Heritage Experience. Since its inception in 1974, the festival has showcased ethnicity through music and dance, costumes, storytelling, workshops, and craft demonstrations but most importantly through the sale and preparation of food. This thesis examines the role of food in constructions of community and ethnicity at the Tucson Heritage Experience. Situated at the crossroads of wider debates concerned with the nature of ethnicity, community formation, and the relationship between food and identity, this thesis draws on ethnographic field research to argue that the unique, incorporative nature of food makes it a powerful medium in the substantiation of community and ethnic ties.
  • Ground stone technology in the Silver Creek area, east-central Arizona

    Mills, Barbara J.; Valado, Martha Trenna (The University of Arizona., 1999)
    This analysis of nearly 1500 ground stone tools collected during five years of excavation in the Silver Creek area of East-Central Arizona is aimed at addressing four research goals: (1) raw material selection; (2) occupational histories; (3) the organization of labor and intensity of production; and (4) migration. Four excavated sites span the time period from A.D. 1050 to 1330. These research domains are investigated by examining technological change and variation in use-wear in the ground stone assemblage. Evidence suggests that although raw material selection was generally consistent throughout this period, there were significant changes in the use of ground stone tools. These changes are especially pronounced in grinding equipment and pottery polishing stones, possibly representing changes in the organization of subsistence and craft production. A comparative approach to assessing the possibility of Kayenta Anasazi migration to the area is also presented.
  • Simulating the Long House Valley: An evaluation of the role of agent-based computer simulation in archaeology

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Littler, Matthew Laws, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
    This study presents the results of a detailed analysis of an agent-based computer simulation called Artificial Anasazi. The simulation attempts to replicate the population growth and settlement patterns of the prehistoric Kayenta Anasazi of Long House Valley in northeastern Arizona between A.D. 400-1300. Agent-based simulations model social evolution from the bottom-up, using heterogeneous agents that follow simple rules, in contrast to the top-down computer simulations usually used by archaeologists. Artificial Anasazi is tested against the archaeological record of the real Long House Valley through both qualitative and quantitative methods, and an analysis of the relevant ethnographic information is presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the potentials and pitfalls of using agent-based computer simulation as a serious research tool in archaeology.
  • Wounded Knee in 1891 and 1973: Prophets, protest, and a century of Sioux resistance

    Schlegel, Alice; Bohnlein, Ivy Briana, 1974- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
    Wounded Knee has been the site of two significant encounters between the United States and the Sioux nation: the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1891, and the takeover of Wounded Knee Village in 1973. These encounters are related to each other by more than location: both were the result of Sioux participation in a national movement. In the 1880s, that movement was the Ghost Dance, though Sioux involvement was characterized by a uniquely hostile approach. A century later, the Sioux of Pine Ridge reservation formed an alliance with the national American Indian Movement that resulted in a seventy-one day armed siege at Wounded Knee. During both time periods, similar historical factors, external forces, and internal conflicts resulted in the Sioux taking part in these movements, but the unique character of their resistance was shaped by internalized values and a cultural model which favored an aggressive response to perceived threats.
  • Weed of the wild: Health, identity and gender among new cigar smokers

    Ortiz, Ana; Rich, Leigh Elizabeth, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
    Cigars today reproduce American health, identity and gender ideologies rooted in capitalism. Because of pressures to be both producer and consumer, the cigar is merely the latest appropriation of our control/release cycle. Thus, part one unravels the myth of the "safe tobacco." Examining another dualism, part two addresses the construction of identity as negotiation between individual and society. Uniqueness is sought-after, and smokers purchase a ready-made "image" to make their own. Finally, part three shifts Foucault's "normalizing gaze" from female to male. For young men, cigars signify one's "arrival"; for women, "image" and attention-getting schemes. But these impressions negate the female cigar experience. In actuality, both manipulate the symbol differently: Women use cigars as transgressive identity, men embodied identity. However, health risks increase for each. As cigarette users, women often inhale. As non-smokers, men forge a new group once deemed safe from tobacco's costs and pleasures.
  • Ungulate ethoarchaeology: Interpreting Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene archaeological ungulate assemblages from southwest Asia

    Stiner, Mary C.; Dean, Rebecca Marie, 1973- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
    Zooarchaeologists are beginning to produce more data on age profiles and sex ratios in archaeological faunal assemblages, but often lack the ecological basis to interpret these data. This thesis reviews the ethological literature on four main prey species found in southwest Asia faunal assemblages during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene: gazelle (Gazella sp.), Fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica), wild goat (Capra ibex) and wild sheep (Ovis sp.). This ethological review is used to develop models which predict the age and sex composition of archaeological faunal assemblages that were produced during different seasons and by different hunting techniques. Finally, a review of the archaeological record from the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in southwest Asia puts the age and sex ratios from archaeofaunas into the context of economic intensification and domestication.

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