THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF BOARDS OF EDUCATION AND SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS AS REFLECTED IN THE PERCEPTIONS OF MEMBERS OF BOTH GROUPS IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN ARIZONA
AuthorBart, Mary Johannah Shaffer
KeywordsSchool boards -- Arizona -- Attitudes.
School administrators -- Arizona -- Attitudes.
School board-superintendent relationships -- Arizona.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to ascertain how school board members and superintendents in Arizona view their own and each other's role and function in the organization and operation of school systems. A second objective was to determine whether the demographic factor of school district locale (urban or rural) contributes to school boards' and superintendents' perceptions. In Arizona, the rights, responsibilities and discretionary powers to act are all given to local school boards. There is no mention of local superintendents' powers or duties in the Arizona State Statutes. This failure to grant statutory power to the superintendents or to formulate district-level policies for the delineation of duties and responsibilities between the school board and the superintendent has frequently led to conflict in district operation. Sixty-five districts were chosen using stratified random sampling from among all the urban and rural districts in Arizona. The Administrative Role Perception Questionnaire was sent to one board member and to the superintendent in each of the 65 districts. The questionnaire contained 22 items representing seven Task Areas: Curriculum Development, Pupil Services, Teaching Materials, Personnel Administration, School Plant Management, Finance and Budget, and Public Relations. The data were analyzed using a series of t-tests. There was substantial disagreement between board members and superintendents on their role and function in the school system. Board members and superintendents differed significantly on Personnel Administration (p<.01), Curriculum Development (p<.03), Teaching Materials (p<.008), Finance and Budget (p<.05), and Public Relations (p<.002). The widest disagreement in perception of the role and function of school boards and superintendents was found between rural board members and rural superintendents. The widest agreement in perception was found between urban and rural board members and between urban and rural superintendents. This would indicate that board members from both urban and rural areas tend to agree more with each other than they do with superintendents. Superintendents from urban and rural areas also tend to agree more with each other than they do with board members. This study has shown that there is still substantial disagreement between boards of education and superintendents. The disagreement indicates an absence of district policies delineating the duties and responsibilities between boards of education and superintendents. Where such policies do exist, they are apparently widely disregarded. The result is the inability of board members and superintendents either to fully understand or to be allowed to discharge their respective roles and functions within the school system. This study recommends that boards of education and superintendents work to define their respective roles in written policy statements which are as broad as possible and cover every major aspect of school district governance and operation. Boards of education and superintendents should work to enact state laws which delineate the duties of the board of education and those of the superintendent. Boards of education should provide adequate funds annually for school board member and superintendent in-service training designed to facilitate understanding and agreement between board members and superintendents. It is also recommended that boards of education offer their superintendents contracts containing policy statements defining respective roles and allowing for redress if a violation occurs. It is hoped that the findings of this study will encourage school districts to formulate policies for the delineation of duties and responsibilities between the board of education and the superintendent.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The impact of school culture on school safety: An analysis of elementary schools in a Southwestern metropolitan school districtQuinn, David M.; Bass, Ruth N. (The University of Arizona., 2004)Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship that exists between school culture and school safety. The principle school culture subscales measure (1) Collaborative Leadership, (2) Teacher Collaboration, (3) Professional Development, (4) Collegial Support, (5) Unity of Purpose, and (6) Learning Partnerships. The safety subscales utilized were (1) Valuing Influence of Teachers and Staff, (2) Feelings of Fear and Lack of Safety, (3) Stressors and Daily Discomforts, and (4) Positive Attitude Toward School Environment and Community. This relationship was surveyed using the School Culture Survey (Gruenert & Valentine, 1997) and the Inviting School Safety Survey (Lehr & Purkey, 1997) among seven metropolitan elementary schools in one Southwestern section of the United States. Procedures. The study included seven elementary schools. Teachers in each school were surveyed on numerous aspects of culture and safety. Teacher data were collected through surveys. Two hypotheses were tested using Pearson-Product Moment Correlation to determine if any of the six subscales of culture from the School Culture Survey correlate with the four safety subscales of the Inviting School Safety Survey. Ordinary Least Squared Regression was used to identify school culture factors that predict school safety factors. The six subscales of culture from the School Culture Survey were used as predictor variable for each of the four Inviting School Safety Scales. Findings. A high level of correlation was found between teachers' perceptions of school culture subscales with School Safety subscales when controlling for the variables of SES, percent of special education students, mobility rate, and number of students. A statistically significant predictive relationship was found for the School Culture subscales with each of the School Safety subscales. Low correlation and low predictive relationships was found for the six School Culture subscales with the School Safety subscale of Feelings of Fear and Lack of Safety. If schools are to be safe for all students, school leaders must change the culture of their schools.
Indian Boarding School Tattoos among Female American Indian Students (1960s -1970s): Phoenix Indian School, Santa Rosa Boarding School, Fort Wingate Boarding SchoolDawley, Martina Michelle; Lomawaima, K. Tsianina (The University of Arizona., 2009)Tattooing in the federal Indian boarding school system appears to have been common among the student body, but the practice is not well documented. A search of the literature on Native education, focusing on boarding schools, yielded only fragments of references to tattooing because there has been no substantive or detailed research on Indian boarding school tattoos. One brief narrative from Celia Haig-Brown (1988), however, illustrates the commonality and the dangers of tattooing. This study examines tattoos among female students who attended Indian boarding schools in the Southwest during the 1960s-1970s. The personal accounts of my mother's experience in tattooing at the Phoenix Indian School provide a baseline for this study. My study explores an undocumented area of boarding school history and student experiences. Many students from various tribes tattooed. The tattoos most often included small initials and markings, and my analysis concludes that the meanings were mostly related to resistance.
A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between Kindergarteners' Self-Reported School Readiness and School Liking: Including Children's Voices in School Readiness ResearchLegg Burross, Heidi; Mora, Bernadette Alexandra; Legg Burross, Heidi; McCaslin, Mary; Marx, Ronald; Gaches, Sonya (The University of Arizona., 2017)School readiness is a prominent issue in early childhood education as adults strive to prepare young children for school. The desirability of school readiness lies within the notion that if children enter kindergarten prepared, then they will be successful throughout their schooling. However, school readiness is a complex concept. It is perceived differently by parents, teachers, policy makers, and researchers. Nationally, children are the only stakeholders whose voices are ignored in the discussions of school readiness. Based on three frameworks, that children are active agents in their experiences, that children have the right to be heard, and that children should not be silenced by traditional research practices, this dissertation proposed that children could participate in research to express their views about being ready for school. Since the central argument for school readiness is that children who enter school prepared will be successful later in school, it was imperative to determine how children’s views on school readiness were linked to later school-related outcomes. Therefore, this dissertation also sought children’s perceptions of their adjustment to school (i.e. their attitudes toward school). In a two-part study, 36 kindergartners from Southern Arizona participated in interviews, activities, and a survey to discuss their perceptions of being ready for school in the beginning of kindergarten and their attitudes toward school at the end of kindergarten. Participants consistently revealed that they needed to create positive peer relationships and that they needed to comply with institutional demands (rules, routines, and tasks) in order to be ready for and succeed in school. In addition, participants revealed three influential factors that affected their attitudes toward school: types of activities (academic versus extracurricular), play, and peer relationships. Participants who didn't like academic activities, who didn’t view school as a place for play, and who had fewer peer relationships struggled with adjusting to school and reported low school liking. Finally, a qualitative analysis was conducted to investigate trends that emerged between kindergarteners' perceptions of school readiness at the beginning of the year and their attitudes toward school at the end of the school year. School readiness perceptions that were centered on the rules, routines, and tasks (work) of school were related to less positive attitudes toward school and perceptions centered on knowledge/skills (learning) and prosocial behaviors were related to more positive attitudes toward school. These patterns suggest that students will enjoy school if they perceive school to be intellectually and socially empowering rather than institutionally limiting. These findings confirm that young children have unique insights of school readiness and what they need to succeed in school. Additionally, their early perceptions of school readiness are related to their later attitudes toward school suggesting that these views should be given due weight. In order for these views to be given due weight, adults should consider how to incorporate children's perspectives regarding school readiness into educational practices and policies. Children's perspectives provide insight into the experiences and challenges of being a new student. Only by listening to children can adults identify how to support and prepare children for success in school.