NUTRITIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTION IN THE BLUE SHRIMP PENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS REARED UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS
AuthorMagarelli, Paul Charles
AdvisorColvin, L. Benard
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractSex-specific nutritional requirements for crude protein and fat were demonstrated in cultured (F1) Penaeus stylirostris brood stock. Female shrimp required diets which had higher protein (32 versus 27%), lower fat (2.5 versus 3.9%), higher protein/calorie ratios (8.5 versus 6.8% protein/kcal/g), and much higher protein/fat ratios (15.4 versus 7.8% protein/% fat) than males. These studies have also demonstrated a nutritional demand corresponding to the onset of ovarian maturation, a phenomenon which was explained as a reduction in growth rates at the attainment of 30 to 35 g in shrimp fed deficient diets. Both the quality and the quantity of dietary fat were shown to affect the growth of P. stylirostris brood stock. Male growth was positively correlated with the quantity of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 ω3) in the diets. The females were not affected by the types of fatty acids in the fat; they were influenced more by the quantity of fat, i.e., as the fat level of the diet increased, the growth decreased. Cold extrusion feed (CEF) diets supplemented with squid, and diets which included squid as one of the ingredients in the formulation, were found to stimulate better growth in both male and female brood stock as compared to CEF diets of equal protein and fat content without squid. The protein/fat ratio, as well as the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were suggested to be responsible for the improved growth. Comparisons were made between the quality of spawns from wild P. stylirostris matured in captivity (P1) and F1 shrimp. Protein levels of the eggs did not correlate with either the number of eggs spawned or the eclosion rate. The number of the eggs spawned was correlated positively with the levels of eicosaenoic acid (20:1 ω9) in both P1 and F1 eggs, and correlated negatively with linoleic acid (18:2 ω6) in P1 eggs only. Spawning times were reported to occur later in the evening as summer approached. A significant, negative correlation was observed between the elapsed time from copulation, i.e., collection of fertilized shrimp, to spawning and eclosion rate. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the number of spawns which contained eggs which did not hatch, and the elapsed time from copulation to spawning. The number of eggs spawned and the eclosion rate were found to be higher in P1 shrimp as compared to F1 shrimp. Also, first breeding season spawners (FBS) had better quality spawns than second breeding season (SBS) spawners, i.e., more eggs with higher eclosion rates. A general reduction in the quality of the spawns was therefore implicated as a result of the culture conditions. Multiple spawning behavior was observed and there appeared to be no qualitative or quantitative difference between spawns. Tank size and shape were demonstrated to affect the onset of ovarian development and the transfer of the spermatophore. A minimum of three meters was thought to be required for the development of the ovaries and the successful transfer of the spermatophore.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Morphologic and genetic characterization of wild populations of shrimp of the genus Penaeus within the Gulf of California, Mexico: New social, political, and management dilemmas for the Mexican shrimp fisheryAubert, Hernan, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1997)Species are often composed of discrete breeding units called populations, demes, or stocks. Each stock, while not reproductively isolated from other conspecific populations, may have limited opportunities to interbreed with others due to geographic separation. Allopatric stocks are favored, fortuitously arise, or become extinct, through differential selective pressures (including fishing and disease) acting either locally or throughout the geographic range of a species. Usually, these selection processes result in genetic and morphological dissimilarities between stocks. Whereas changes in the genotype are commonly reflected in the morphology of the individual, shifts in morphology do not always result from alterations of the genotype; morphological change can be induced by environmental factors (phenotypic plasticity). Therefore, it is essential to combine morphological with genetic analyses in studies of wild population identification. The goals of my research were to identify and characterize morphological stocks of Penaeus stylirostris and P. vannamei in the Gulf of California, and to conduct genetic analysis on the identified morphotypes of P. stylirostris to confirm their population structure. Seventy-eight variables were obtained from 417 specimens of P. stylirostris (representative of 21 fishing grounds) and 218 P. vannamei (representing 14 fishing grounds) and analyzed by principal component and canonical variate analyses. Morphometric analysis revealed three distinct regional stocks of P. vannamei and five of P. stylirostris. Genetic structure of P. stylirostris populations was tested from 78 samples (representing six fishing grounds in the Gulf) of male total genomic DNA extracted from frozen shrimp tails. The DNA samples were adjusted in distilled water to a final concentration of 10 ng/mul, and amplified with 20 random 10-mer primers (Operon) on a Perkin Elmer Thermocycler. The PCR RAPD profiles were used to identify between stock genetic differences. The novel adoption of sequencing gels to analyze RAPD profiles, proved useful in demonstrating (significant) genetic differences between specimens from all six fishing grounds. My research demonstrates the importance and applicability of combining morphological and genetic analyses in studies of wild stock identification. The relevance of my findings to the management of the Mexican shrimp fishery and the aquaculture industry are thoroughly discussed.
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