BIONOMICS OF THE GREEN LACEWING CHRYSOPA CARNEA STEPHENS (CHRYSOPIDAE: NEUROPTERA) IN ARIZONA
AuthorMalik, Mohamed Yousif, 1935-
AdvisorGraham, Harry M.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractChrysopa carnea Stephens is widely distributed throughout the world. The larva is a potential control agent of pests in greenhouses, field crops and orchards. Its use as a biocontrol agent in integrated control is enhanced by its tolerance to some insecticides. Because of its considerable usefulness, studies to investigate the bionomics of this predator under both laboratory and field conditions were initiated. The study of population dynamics in alfalfa fields indicated that the major factors which govern the fluctuation of Chrysopa are: climate, food (e.g. aphids), diseases, parasites and agricultural practices (e.g. cutting of alfalfa hay). In each year and for each field, it was apparent that population levels of larvae rose to peaks five to six times; this suggests that there are five to six generations per year. The study of the effect of temperature and photoperiod on development in the laboratory showed that the egg, larva and pupa responded significantly to both temperature and photoperiod and an interaction between these two parameters was detected. Relative to fecundity and longevity, the investigations revealed that there was a photoperiod response only with respect to number of eggs laid and preoviposition period and that interaction between temperature and photoperiod was absent. In the case of the oviposition period, a response to temperature was detected and interaction between temperature and photoperiod existed. The different regimes had no significant effect on longevity of either sex. Consumption of prey differed significantly--being highest with beet armyworm eggs (Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) followed by corn earworm (Heliothis zea (Boddie) and tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (Fabricius). Fewer pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were consumed than any of the lepidoterous eggs. Resistance to starvation differed significantly among the three instars; the newly-emerged Chyrsopa larvae had the shortest survival period. Studies on consumption of different instars of tobacco budworm by different instars of the predator indicated that the first instar was most vulnerable to attack by each of the first and third instars of the predator. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of cold storage (4.4°C) of eggs and pupal cocoons for different periods of time. The results indicated that percent egg hatch and survival of emerging larvae were highest when stored for one week. Pupal storage for different periods had no detrimental effect on survival of pupae nor fecundity of emerging adults.
Degree ProgramGraduate College