AuthorYu, Howard Kwong-Ho
AdvisorBerliner, David C.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractRecent studies of instruction have been concerned with the cognitive processes of learners as they interact with instructional material. Researchers pursuing this line of research consider the learner to be very active, mediating between instructional stimuli and learning outcomes. Using the mediating process paradigm to formulate research on instruction in college classroom settings, the present study investigated two specific questions: (1) What attending strategies generate effective encoding during a lecture so that comprehension is enhanced? (2) What is the influence of reviewing processes on encoding and retrieval of lecture information when review occurs immediately after a lecture and/or just before a test? Four different methods for attending to a college lecture were studied (listening, listening with an outline, note-taking, note-taking with an outline). Each method was designed to influence the student's level of processing, and, therefore, to effect the encoding and retrieval of information from a lecture. In addition, the effects of no review or review after a lecture and no review or review before a test were also studied. The experiment used an intentional learning paradigm, with a 4(encoding) x 2(after-lecture review) x 2(before-test review) between-subject design. Comprehension was measured by a multiple-choice recognition test of 20 questions and a short-answer recall test of 10 questions given three weeks after lecture instruction. Statistically significant findings provide evidence that the level of processing is an important variable in learning from college lecture. Other findings, though not statistically significant, lent support to the external storage hypothesis. These data help to explain why note-taking and/or lecture outline are advantageous in lecture learning. Findings from the present study suggest ways to improve learning from college lecture. If lecturers were to provide outlines to students while the students listen or take notes; require a review after a lecture is given; and require a review before a test on the content of the lecture is given; learning would probably be facilitated. Further study of these recommendations is needed.
Degree ProgramGraduate College