DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURAL, STEREOISOMERIC AND CONFORMATIONALLY RESTRICTED ANALOGUES OF ALPHA-MELANOTROPIN: COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON MELANOPHORES AND MELANOMA CELLS
AuthorSawyer, Tomi Kim
AdvisorHruby, Victor J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractSeveral chemically-modified analogues of α-melanotropin (α-MSH, Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH₂) were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis, including [Nle⁴]-α-MSH, Ac-[Nle⁴]-α-MSH₄₋₁₃-NH₂, Ac-[Nle⁴]-α-MSH₁₋₆-NH₂, Ac-α-MSH₇₋₁₀-NH₂, Ac-α-MSH₁₁₋₁₃-NH₂, Ac-[Nle⁴]-α-MSH(,4-10)-NH₂, Ac-[Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH₄₋₁₀-NH₂, [Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH, Ac-α-MSH₄₋₁₀-NH₂, Ac-[Tyr⁴]-α-MSH₄₋₁₀-NH₂ and [half-Cys⁴, half-Cys¹⁰]-α-MSH. The synthetic strategy involved: (1) p-methylbenzhydrylamine resin as a solid support, (2) N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent, (3) acetylation of the N-terminus and HF cleavage and deprotection (except for Nⁱ-For-Trp) of the fully assembled peptide-resin and (4) alkaline hydrolysis to deformylate Nⁱ-For-Trp. In the preparation of [half-Cys⁴, half-Cys¹⁰]-α-MSH, oxidative-cyclization provided formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge. A comparative biological analysis in vitro of these above structural, stereoisomeric and conformationally-restricted analogues of α-MSH on several different vertebrate pigment cell systems provided the following results: (1) The [Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH effected high melanotropic potency (> 60 times relative to α-MSH), ultralong biological activity and unprecedented metabolic stability. (2) Utilizing [Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH as a molecular probe, two melanotropic receptor types were demonstrated which were mechanistically different in terms of calcium dependency and apparent hormone-receptor complex reversibility. (3) The Ac-[Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH₄₋₁₀-NH₂ was a highly potent active site (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly) analogue of α-MSH (ranging from 0.2- to 10-times relative to α-MSH) without the ultralong melanotropic activity possessed by the parent stereostructural tridecapeptide. (4) The [half-Cys4, half-Cys10]-α-MSH exhibited superpotency on frog (Rana pipiens) melanophores (≥ 10,000 times relative to α-MSH), and provided experimental evidence that a pseudocyclic conformation of the native hormone containing a β-turn structural requirement at His-Phe-Arg-Trp might be related to its biological activity at the pigment cell receptor. The [Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷]-α-MSH may be suitable for use as a radio-labeled tracer or drug-delivery agent for the localization or treatment of human melanoma in vivo.
Degree ProgramGraduate College