LANGUAGE TRANSFER OF NAVAJO AND WESTERN APACHE SPEAKERS IN WRITING ENGLISH
AuthorBartelt, Hans Guillermo
KeywordsEnglish language -- Dialects -- Arizona.
Navajo Indians -- Languages.
Apache Indians -- Languages.
AdvisorCook, Mary Jane
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractWritten texts of Navajo and Western Apache speakers in English revealed rhetorical patterns which seem to be tied to the native languages. The theoretical framework of interlanguage is used to analyze language transfer of two rhetorical features at the discourse level: (1) rhetorical redundancy and (2) narrative technique. Both features can be viewed as fossilizations of discourse which are forced upon the surface of written Navajo and Western Apache English interlanguage by the process of language transfer. Rhetorical redundancy exists in Navajo and Western Apache for emphasis and is transferred to English discourse as emphasis by the repetition of lexical items, syntactic strings and sentential paraphrases. The purposes for rhetorical redundancy in Navajo and Western Apache English interlanguage include the emphasis of emotional concerns, clarifications, and conventions of courtesy. A discourse rule is suggested which summarizes rhetorical redundancy transfer. Narrative technique in Navajo and Western Apache English interlanguage involves idiosyncratic tense shifting patterns at the discourse level. Navajo and Western Apache speakers seem to transfer the semantics of Navajo and Western Apache modes and aspects to English tenses. It is suggested that Navajo and Western Apache speakers find standard English tense usage inadequate for their underlying narrative discourse motivations. The Navajo and Western Apache usitative mode, imperfective mode, and continuative aspect are expressed through the English present tense. The Navajo and Western Apache perfective mode is realized in English through the past tense. The Navajo and Western Apache progressive mode, optative mode, iterative mode, and repetitive aspect surface in English as two possible nonstandard forms of the progressive aspect. A set of three mode and aspect transfer rules at the narrative discourse level is suggested.
Degree ProgramGraduate College