AuthorStoll, Clifford Paul
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractPioneer 10 and 11 polarimetry maps of Jupiter, taken at a wide variety of phase angles, have been analyzed. Data were reduced in two colors for Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (latitude -5 to -8 degrees) and scattering models were constructed. Variations in polarization from center to limb set constraints on the vertical structure of the atmosphere. The absolute polarization near the center of the disc constrained the single scattering polarization phase matrix of the scattering particles. After exploring several types of cloud models, it was found that a two cloud model with a haze in the upper atmosphere fits the data best. Several types of vertical structures were ruled out, including gas over a nonpolarizing Lambert surface, gas over a polarizing cloud deck, uniformly mixed gas with scattering particles (Reflecting Scattering Model), and models where the cloud tops diffusely mixed with gas as a function of altitude. Constraints have been set upon the polarimetric scattering properties of the haze and lower clouds. The haze particles are closely approximated by conservatively scattering spheres of index of refraction 1.5 and uniformly distributed sizes between 0.16 and 0.18 microns radius. A relationship exists between the required index of refraction for the haze particles and the mean size of the particles. It is possible that the particles are more broadly distributed in size, as this area was not extensively explored. The optical depth of the haze is between 0.125 and 0.250 at a wavelength of 0.44 microns, and lies near the 200 millibar pressure level. The upper cloud, which is thought to be made of ammonia crystals, must be at least optical depth 2, and could be semi-infinite. The polarization scattering properties of the clouds are distinctly different from the haze, indicating a compositional or size difference. The cloud particles have polarizing properties indicative of large (larger than 0.5 micron radius) particles. The upper cloud has been modelled to be near the 500 millibar level, but the pressure level for the best fitting model depends upon the chosen single scattering phase matrix. For more negatively polarizing cloud particles, the cloud would be located deeper in the atmosphere. The lowest cloud is more weakly constrained. Its scattering properties are set the same as the upper cloud, and it has been modelled as having semi-infinite optical depth. For the nominal scattering phase matrix, this cloud is located near the 2250 millibar pressure level. The constraints set on both the vertical structure and the particle scattering properties can be useful in the determination of Jupiter's solar flux deposition profile. Additionally, the location of the cloud and haze layers in Jupiter's atmosphere is important to the understanding of the heat balance of the planet, as well as to the understanding of the global dynamic of Jupiter's atmosphere.
Degree ProgramGraduate College