• Common Sense And Capitalism: An Observation Of The Production Of Information Technology In The Context Of A Capitalist Economy

      Thompson, Richard; Smith, Hannah Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this project is to identify trends in production in a capitalist economy, but it is also to make the viewer aware or their own capabilities of observation. By collecting data from public online sources and performing analysis with the programming language Python, I have identified several trends. I then speculated the potential causes of these trends, reflecting on research articles regarding production systems and incentives in a capitalist economy. This analysis is important because it takes a widespread idea (the benefit of capitalism in production) and applies ‘good sense’ – an idea proposed by philosopher Antonio Gramsci – to an idea that is typically promoted as common sense. The analysis itself allows for educated critiques on the quality of the capitalist system, and the idea of ‘goof sense’ promotes critiques on all widely-held yet seldom-questioned beliefs in our society.
    • Barriers To Gender-Stereotype Inconsistent Helping: Investigating Concerns About Anticipated Negative Mood, Fear Of Backlash, And Low Self-Efficacy Beliefs

      Croft, Alyssa; Clark, Brittany Marietta (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Previous research has shown that engaging in prosocial behaviors results in benefits to well-being (e.g., increased positive mood). However, research also suggests that gender stereotypes restrict how we engage in prosocial behaviors, resulting in the classification of female-typed and male-typed helping. Women are more likely to help in line with communal roles (e.g., offering emotional support), while men are more likely to help in line with agentic roles (e.g., physical, problem solving). In this study, I evaluated men and women’s anticipated mood, perceived self-efficacy, and fear of backlash after imaging themselves engaging in a gender-consistent vs. inconsistent helping scenario. I hypothesize that people who imagine themselves helping in a gender-inconsistent way will anticipate decreased mood (vs. gender-consistent helping). I also hypothesize that perceived self-efficacy and fear of backlash will mediate this relationship such that people asked to imagine themselves helping in an inconsistent manner will expect to be less skilled and more concerned about harsh judgments from others, resulting in decreased anticipated mood. Results show that those who imagined helping in a gender-inconsistent way anticipated decreased positive mood and lower self-efficacy beliefs, with self-efficacy serving as a mediator. Further results and implications for the current study are discussed.
    • Implementation Science In Research With Late-Talking Toddlers: A Case Study

      Alt, Mary; Pyatt, Carson Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how incorporating an implementation science factor into the early stages of treatment research can benefit the long-term clinical execution of treatment. This paper references current literature on how implementation science can be used to benefit research in the field of communication disorders. We analyzed the parent interviews of toddlers who completed a word-learning study (VAULT). A reviewer coded all interviews and documented observable repeating themes in responses among parents. Themes were then analyzed in order to determine what aspects of treatment are preferred and those that might benefit from alteration when taking treatment to a parent-based execution. By incorporating an implementation science factor into this stage of treatment research, we can more efficiently determine how to design the treatment for the future stages.
    • Management Of Food Allergies In School Settings

      Goldsmith, Patricia Nolan; Masciola, Anna Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis will highlight the most current research regarding the management of food allergies and anaphylaxis in the school setting. Food allergies have become extremely common among the modern population, and school officials may not have the proper tools in place to properly care for a food allergic child or an anaphylactic emergency (Food Allergy Research and Education, 2018). This literature review summarizes barriers to managing food allergies well in the school setting, as well as knowledge and perceptions of school staff members before they are educated on food allergies. It also describes several policy changes and educational interventions that promote a safer school environment, which can be implemented to create a safe school environment for the food allergic student. The role of the school nurse in implementing these changes is also discussed. In addition to current research, this thesis will also list best practice recommendations, a theoretical implementation plan, and a theoretical evaluation process.
    • Implementing Predictive Policing: A Policy Analysis Approach

      Boustead, Anne E.; Guzman, Samantha Grace (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Predictive policing techniques have grown rapidly in both sophistication and use over the past decade; yet, there is a large amount of legal and public pushback against the concept. This thesis aims to address privacy, equity and efficacy concerns by examining the accuracy and fairness of existing predictive policing mechanisms. After providing a background on both conventional and predictive policing methods, I then introduce a framework of best practices for predictive policing implementation for policy-makers and police departments to follow. To provide examples of the framework in action, I describe how various departments have implemented predictive policing and discuss the implications of such. Finally, the paper concludes with overall policy recommendations and key takeaways for future use of predictive policing technology.
    • Cochlear Implants: Benefits And Risks

      Volk, Cindy; Martinez, Gabriel Manuel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cochlear implants are a controversial topic in the Deaf community due to the fact that many believe that the invasive procedure is the “cure” to deafness. The purpose of this study is to give a well-rounded and more Deaf friendly perspective to a technological device that can exacerbate audism. The research question of this study is to determine whether the risks of having a cochlear implant is worthwhile. This study also focuses on the very important ethical and cultural aspects of the implant. The types of data used in this study is quantitative, qualitative, and observational. Data is collected through various scholarly and consumer-based articles, as well as other media sources. The results of this study are that despite some of the improvements in quality of life because of the effectiveness of the implant, there are many serious lifelong risks and possible complications that can also arise from having a cochlear implant. Despite such risks and different ethical perspectives and whether the implants are Deaf friendly, whether cochlear implants are worth it; it is subjective to each and every person who makes the decision of getting implanted.
    • Interactions Between Ecosystem Dynamics On Belowground Microbial Community Capacity Under Semiarid And Arid Conditions

      Neilson, Julie; Theilmann, Mira Lizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Ecosystem sustainability in semi-arid to arid landscapes depends on plant-microbe soil interactions. The belowground microbial communities of semi-arid and arid ecosystems are less robust than those of temperate climates and therefore more vulnerable to environmental stress and anthropogenic disturbance. Study of the ecosystem dynamics that accompany ecosystem degradation during the transition from semiarid to arid landscapes may provide critical insights applicable to the reclamation of semi-arid marginal lands, such as those compromised by mining activities. The specific goal of this project is to define the characteristics of semiarid and arid ecosystems and their relationship to the sustainability of associated vegetation and microbial communities. To supplement ecosystem characterization, the microbial biomass of soils from undisturbed Sonoran Desert areas will be compared to degraded substrate compromised by mining activities at Resolution Copper Mine. This comparison of semi-arid and arid microbial communities between undisturbed sustainable soil and disturbed substrate from variable levels of reclamation may determine the importance of microbial community composition on reclamation success. The research questions to be addressed by this thesis are what are the defining physical characteristics of sustainable semi-arid and arid zones and what are the crucial interactions between aridity driven water deficit and vegetation and microbial communities?
    • The Benefit Of Intergenerational Interactions On Geriatric Patient Satisfaction And Well-Being

      Glisky, Elizabeth; Rowlison, Gabrielle Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This project aimed to address social isolation, decreased morale, and negative perceptions of healthcare in older adult communities such as assisted and independent living facilities by introducing intergenerational interactions as an intervention. This intervention, which took place in Spring 2019, was a component of a course taught by Elizabeth Glisky, PhD of the Department of Psychology. The students of the class visited an assigned elder at three different sites in Tucson, and spent some time interacting with their elders and learning about their lives. The college students then created “Life Story” booklets for the adults with whom they interacted. Questionnaires addressing the older adults’ psychological well-being, level of depressive symptoms, and perception of care they receive from their primary care provider were administered before and after the intervention. There were marginally significant improvements in overall psychological well-being and in the subcategory of autonomy. There were no changes in depression or perceptions of care. Although the main goal of this study was to improve older adults’ perceptions of their relationship with their primary care provider by increasing comfort in interacting with younger adults, we were unable to observe such changes. Possible reasons for this null finding are suggested in the discussion.
    • Integrating The Sociology Of Standards With Community Paramedicine

      Braitberg, Victor; Rabinowitz, Aaron Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As of 2019, over 130 community paramedicine (CP) programs exist internationally. These are the goals that community paramedicine seeks to achieve: prevent hospital readmissions, reduce frequent EMS (emergency medical service) and ED (emergency department) user’s reliance on emergency services, provide alternative and more appropriate destinations for patient care, and chronic disease management by increasing patient access to primary care services. There is no way of assessing if these common goals are being met because programs today use a diversity of different strategies, techniques, and measurements when providing care. This reflects different electronic interfaces, different patient referral forms, different program evolution patterns, and different program strategies. For example, the use of an urban or rural community paramedicine model, or the use of one software in favor of another. The consequences of these different strategies include: failure to legitimize CP as an emerging type of healthcare, failure to optimally control program costs, failure to develop a language for communication that is understood by all community paramedics, failure to make data comparable between different programs, and failure to advance the outlined goals of CP. Drawing on the sociology of standards, this thesis proves that terminological and procedural standards can address these problems by creating a common language for communication and clinical practice guidelines for all community paramedics. Without the creation of such standards, the above consequences will not be remedied. Community paramedicine programs will have the ability to overcome the consequences I have listed through the creation and implementation of these standards.
    • Gender Gap In Migraine: A Feminist Understanding Of A Complicated Health Disparity

      Cohen, Zoe; Vargas, Laura Gabriela (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Migraine is a complex disorder with mechanisms that are largely unknown, as well as a wide gender disparity. American women are affected by migraine at a rate of 20.7 percent, while men are affected at a rate of 9.7 percent. Feminist intersectional theories of health disparities can help explain these patterns by taking into account intersections of race, gender, sex, age, socioeconomic status and environment to create a more detailed explanation of how bodies are evidence of social inequality. Physiological research utilizes the biomedical model of health, which states that all disease has a biological or behavioral root cause. In the case of migraine, presence of estrogen is often cited as a compounding factor and the reason for higher migraine rates in women. This reasoning does not fully explain why both men and women get migraines that are not at all related to menstruation. Biomedical and feminist intersectional modes of thinking are parallel and not often used together to understand disease. Ultimately, integrating these two viewpoints could further treatment of migraine by allowing healthcare professionals to be more understanding of the impact of a socially determined environment on an individual’s health and migraine status.
    • Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: Role In Excessive Cell Growth And Hypertension

      Cohen, Zoe; Carr, Shane Geary (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Hypertension is a widespread disease with over one-third of all US citizens being afflicted. Hypertension significantly increases the likelihood of heart disease, which is the currently leading cause of death in the US. This paper reviews the factors that cause hypertension, such as increased cardiac output, increased stroke volume, increased vessel length, and decreased vessel radius. The second section delves into our research on how excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation contributes to hypertension. We observed that patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) have increased cytosolic calcium concentration in their PASMCs. However, it is unknown how calcium plays a role in this increased proliferation. This study explores our hypothesis that the family of proteins Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases (CaMK) may be the link between calcium and excessive cell proliferation. Our results found that two CaMK proteins, CaMKIV and CaMKII δ, cause increased proliferation and are found at higher concentrations in patients with IPAH. We found that these two CamK proteins are necessary for the increased activity of AKT and PDGFR, two proteins involved in the proliferation pathway. While more research is needed, these results suggest that CaMKIV and CaMKII δ could be targets for the treatment of hypertension.
    • Effect Of Heat Stress On Lying Time In Tie-Stall Holstein Dairy Cows

      Diaz, Duarte; Grumbling, Hannah Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As temperatures around the globe increase and the demand for dairy products increase, heat stress management has become a priority in dairy herd management. Since the majority of dairies in the U.S. are open dry lots with a barn or shed, little research has been done on tiestall dairies and how heat stress effects cows in such operations. In this study, I attempted to document how multiparous lactating Holsteins responded to heat stress in terms of changes in lying time. The results were not statistically significant, with the average lying time during the thermoneutral period being 8.1 ± 3.004 hours and 8.7 ± 4.032 hours during the heat stress period. Finally, during the recovery period was 11.5 ± 5.807 hours. More precise measurement techniques would help in further research.
    • An Algorithm And Implementation To Detect Covert Channels And Data Leakage In Mobile Applications

      Debray, Saumya; Nottingham, Bailey Brian (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As the popularity of the Android Operating System and mobile devices con- tinue to rise, there is a critical need to ensure the sensitive information con- tained on these devices remains private. Covert channels pose a threat to the Android Operating system by communicating stealthily over channels not intended as a source of communication. The surreptitious channels make it difficult for Android's current security mechanisms to detect the presence of covert communication. Covert channels pose a significant risk to user's privacy because sensitive information requiring explicit permission can end up in applications without the consent of the user. In this thesis, we present an algorithm general enough to detect covert communication in mobile de- vices as well as desktop and laptop-based devices. We put our algorithm to the test by implementing and testing on real-world applications present in the google play store, malware samples, and samples taken from geographical regions known to produce spyware. We successfully detected covert commu- nication on a suite of Android applications built to communicate covertly and found applications passing sensitive information through Android's in- terprocess communication mechanisms.
    • The Art Of Physiology

      Delamere, Nicholas; Quinton, Brooke Alexandra (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this creative research project is to discover whether employing artistic methods in the pursuit of deeply scientific knowledge is beneficial to the future learners, educators, physicians, researchers, and communicators. The “method” used to evaluate this proposed theory is to observe and present the progress of one undergraduate student through such an artistic journey. The student will use Type II Diabetes Mellitus as the focus of the project, and create several works of art to describe the disease process underlying this public health crisis that we are faced with today. The works of art will be of varying stylistic approaches, and involve mixed media to push artistic adventure to the limit. The collective results of this theory are to be determined by the observers, followers, and evaluators of the project; both in person at the College of Medicine and online on a Facebook page. The final physical results include a written format, a Facebook page, and ten mixed media pieces on canvas framed in black wood.
    • Mitral Regurgitation In The Heart Of Hong Kong: An Overview Of Cardiovascular Physiology

      Cohen, Zoe; Burtman, Anthony David (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This report is a culminated product from coursework at the University of Arizona and research at the Chinese University of Hong Kong providing a brief overview of cardiovascular physiology and a practical application review of mitral regurgitation patients at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Sha Tin District, Hong Kong. It is a capstone of my physiology knowledge through a combined approach to understand cardiovascular physiology through language and culture.
    • The Dynamic Interaction Between Chemoattractant Receptor cAR1 And Coupled Heterotrimeric G-Protein

      Charest, Pascale G.; Schultz, McKenna L. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      G-protein coupled receptors, a widely studied class of membrane receptors, are often found upstream in intracellular signaling cascades. One such receptor, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor cAR1 in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, is part of a cell’s chemotactic response. The cAR1 receptor binds cAMP and interacts with the heterotrimeric G-protein to initiate a signal cascade, resulting in cell movement. Our research focuses on understanding the interaction dynamics between cAR1 and the G-protein subunits. We studied the receptor in its wild type (WT) form, with several mutations (cAR1234), and truncated beyond residue 289 (cART289). Fluorescently tagged forms of cAR1 and G-protein subunits were synthesized and transfected into D. discoideum cell lines. Expression of the transfected cells was measured through developmental assays, Western blots, and BRET2 analysis. There is a diminished ability of cells with cAR1234 constructs to aggregate when compared to cells with the WTcAR. Cells containing the cART289 elicit some G-protein dissociation. These data suggest the interaction dynamics between cAR1 and the G-protein are affected by the regions mutated in cAR1234 and cART289. However, no substantial conclusions can be drawn yet regarding which region of the receptor is interacting with a particular G-protein subunit.
    • Arabic Language Usage In A Moroccan Medical Setting: A Literature Review And Personal Account

      Shiri, Sonia; Hassan, Yezan Haitham (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      With an ever-diversifying global community, it comes as no surprise that many societies are becoming increasingly bilingual, and even multilingual. Especially in the region of North Africa, the effects of European colonialism have left a linguistic footprint on countries which still endures several decades after independence. One of the most evident examples of this is the use of French in the Moroccan medical field in a society that predominantly uses Arabic and/or Amazigh as its native languages and French as the language of science, medicine, communication. Interactions in healthcare settings reveal a dichotomy between an elite, educated French-speaking class (namely Moroccan doctors) and the regular patients they serve, many of whom are working class with a limited education. This thesis looks at the multi-layered facets of language policy, culture, and history in the context of Moroccan society and the dynamics of language in its healthcare system. The report takes the shape of a literature review in the first part and a qualitative account of my linguistic observations interning at a local private health clinic in the second part.
    • Ground State Of The Heisenberg XXZ Chain With Two Pinning Fields

      Sims, Robert; Mitchell, Matthew Dominique (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      We begin by providing a brief introduction to quantum spin systems including the de nitions and outlining the framework in which we'll be working for the rest of the thesis. We de ne and provide examples of F-functions and reproduce the proof of the Lieb-Robinson bound. [1] We then consider the Heisenberg XXZ spin-1/2 chain model and prove the form of the ground state space with kink and anti- kink boundary conditions. With the addition of a single pinning field, we demonstrate how this selects a single state in the ground state space to be the new unique ground state.
    • Current Flow In 2-Dimensional Quantum Systems

      Stafford, Charles; Kisiel, Elliot (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      We use the method of non-equilibrium Green’s Functions to investigate the current flow in 2-dimensional conductors. We found that by varying the Fermi energy of the system, three different classes of current density profiles could be achieved. In addition to the effects of the Fermi energy of the system, we looked at the effects of mono- and di- vacancies on the resulting current flow. We found that the effects of a mono-vacany on each of the regimes of the Fermi energy varied between the regimes and was dependent on the location of the vacancy within each regime. When two vacancies were introduced into the system, the location effects seen in the mono-vacancy was still important, but the current was also dependent on the relative locations of the two vacancies. In both of these cases we saw current branching in all three regimes but we saw back-flow and vorticies in the low-band and middle-band regimes.
    • Targeting Cortisol And Metabolites In Human Eccrine Sweat As Biomarkers For Mental Health

      Sternberg, Esther M.; Kubacki, Marisa Taylor (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Studies have found that the use of human eccrine sweat for tracking human biomarkers, such as cortisol and downstream cortisol metabolites, was a viable, non-invasive option that yielded similar results to plasma cortisol (Jia et al., 2016, p. 2053). These biomarkers were found to be stable in human eccrine sweat and that their production was due, in part, to stress-related physiological events (Runyon, et al., 2019, p. 1). Also, patients with a current anxiety disorder displayed significantly higher awakening cortisol levels (p = 0.02) than those without a diagnosed anxiety disorder (Vreeburg, et al., 2010, p. 340). These findings indicate that cortisol levels found in human eccrine sweat can be used as a potential quantitative indicator of a mental health disorder with cortisol and metabolite concentrations in sweat being used to aid in the research and advancement of the understanding of underlying mechanisms. This is a preliminary study that will further the research currently being done on sweat collection systems and research the connection between cortisol and anxiety by identifying any correlations in selected target biomarkers found in eccrine sweat (such as cortisol, cortisone, and cortisol metabolites) and differing anxiety levels as indicated through the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI).