INDUSTRIAL-VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN SAUDI ARABIA: 'PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS'
AuthorʻAlāqī, Madanī ʻAbd al-Qādir
KeywordsOccupational training -- Saudi Arabia.
Vocational education -- Saudi Arabia.
Manpower policy -- Saudi Arabia.
Labor supply -- Saudi Arabia.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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INTEREST-FREE LOANS USED BY THE SAUDI GOVERNMENT AS A TRANSFER MECHANISM OF OIL REVENUE TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR (SAUDI ARABIA).Bierwag, Gerald; FOZAN, MOHAMMED NASSER.; Wells, Donald; Wert, James (The University of Arizona., 1986)Prior to 1970 the Saudi Government faced severe socioeconomic problems two of which were: (1) the contribution of the private sector to the Gross Domestic Product was low, and (2) the oil revenues were the main source of the national income. As the oil revenues rapidly increased between 1972 and 1981, the government used every means at its disposal to encourage the private sector. The goal was to diversify the sources of national income in order to decrease the dependency on oil revenues as the main source of national income. To achieve this the government has provided interest-free loans to the private sector which, along with the demand, has increased the gross domestic fixed capital formation of the private sector. The purpose of this study was to theoretically explain the phenomenal expansion of the private sector. Three models were developed from the least to the most difficult. The main principle of the models is that the expansion of the private sector is stimulated because of the low cost of capital in Saudi Arabia. Since oil revenues (the main source of government expenditures) have decreased in recent years questions have been raised concerning the ability of the private sector to support the economy. It is argued that the demand of national and international markets will increase in the future, thus allowing the private sector to expand further. Even though the cost of capital will increase, Saudi companies will be able to compete either nationally or internationally. In addition, the competitiveness of the Saudi capital market may increase which will, in turn, benefit the Saudi economy.
Achieving Net-Zero Energy in Primary Schools In the Hot-Arid Region of Makkah, Saudi ArabiaChalfoun, Nader; Noor Wali, Suhaib Eshaq; Moeller, Colby; Magdy, Omar (The University of Arizona., 2018)The energy demand in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is drastically increasing due to the recent Saudi government’s growth and development in multiple fields. Part of the new government’s vision is to create a lower impact of carbon emissions on the atmosphere. Thus, a significant consideration of building energy consumption is crucial since around 78% of the energy consumption is caused by the building sector in KSA. Residential buildings, however, account for 50% of the energy consumption, and government buildings show negligence in their function (Saudi Energy Efficiency Center 2017). Moreover, with the increase in electricity tariffs, the government has forced the operators of its buildings to enhance building efficiency to consume less energy especially in schools. This research aims to study the possibility of Net-Zero energy schools in Makkah, KSA. The purpose is to create an educational icon that educates the new generation about the importance of sustainability through visual interacting in addition to providing a high performance and healthy learning environment for students and teachers. A prototypical elementary school model was analyzed and simulated using eQUEST, an energy software, to determine the different issues that cause high energy consumption in the school. The building model, Al-Muna School, is a 32,400 ft² primary school located in Makkah, KSA, that has a hot-arid climate. The prototype was simulated using eQUEST, and the simulation result was compared with the energy use intensity (EUI) for primary schools in the hot-arid region of USA, which has the same climate zone as Makkah. The prototype was worse than the code for the educational buildings. The author provided recommendations of passive and active environmental strategies to mitigate energy use in the school building including the following: double low-E glazing, insulation, shading devices, daylight enhancment, night purge ventilation, LED light, and a high SEER hvac system to enhance the building performance and achieve Net-Zero energy. The results from eQUEST show a reduction of 68% from the total energy consumption of the building. Thus, 263 PV panels were implemented to generate the required energy for the building to achieve Net-Zero energy. Moreover, due to the fact that schools in Makkah have the same prototype, the Ministry of Education there can use this research as a case study to be applied to other schools in the area. The Net-Zero Energy for hot-arid climates would be an ideal concept to support the 2030 Vision of KSA, a nationwide initiative to make the country more sustainable.